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MEIOSIS 11-4. http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm. Making gametes…. Remember from Chapter 1: CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS ALL LIVING THINGS __________. Planaria animation: http://www.t3.rim.or.jp/~hylas/planaria/title.htm Family http://babyhearing.org/Parenet2Parent/index.asp.

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Meiosis 11 4
MEIOSIS11-4

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm

Making gametes…


Remember from chapter 1 characteristics of living things all living things
Remember from Chapter 1:CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGSALL LIVING THINGS __________

Planaria animation: http://www.t3.rim.or.jp/~hylas/planaria/title.htmFamily http://babyhearing.org/Parenet2Parent/index.asp


Asexual reproduction
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookmito.html

Bacteria reproduce using

__________________________________

Budding & regeneration are used by plants and animals to reproduce asexually (mitosis)

http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/mitosis/c7.13.2.hydra.jpg

Planaria animation: http://www.t3.rim.or.jp/~hylas/planaria/title.htm


Mitosis
MITOSIS

Produces cells that are __________ copies of parent cell


Advantages of asexual reproduction
ADVANTAGES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Can make offspring faster

Don’t need a partner

http://www.mrgrow.com/images/cutting.jpg


Disvantages of asexual reproduction
DISVANTAGES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

ALL ALIKE

Species CAN’T change and adapt

One disease can wipe out whole population

http://www.mrgrow.com/images/cutting.jpg


Sexual reproduction
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Family image from: http://babyhearing.org/Parenet2Parent/index.asp

Combines genetic material

from 2 parents (sperm & egg)

so offspring are

genetically __________

from parents


Advantages of sexual reproduction
ADVANTAGES OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Allows for variation in population

Individuals can be different

Provides foundation for EVOLUTION

Allow species adapt to

changes in

their environment

http://naturalsciences.sdsu.edu/classes/lab8/spindex.html


http://www.angelbabygifts.com/

Image by Riedell

Image by Riedell

EGG

+

SPERM

If egg and sperm had same number of

chromosomes as other body cells . . .

baby would have too many chromosomes!

http://www.acmecompany.com/stock_thumbnails/13217.forty-six_chromosomes.jpg


Meiosis is the way
MEIOSIS is the way…

to make cells with ½ the number of chromosomes

for sexual

reproduction

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm


Video 1

Video 1

Video 1

Meiosis Overview

Click the image to play the video segment 11A.


Diploid haploid
DIPLOID & HAPLOID

Most cells have 2 copies of each chromosome = ______________

(one from mom; one from dad)

All BODY (___________) cells are diploid

HOMOLOGOUSCHROMOSOMES


Diploid haploid1
DIPLOID & HAPLOID

Some cells have only one copy of each chromosome = _____________

All sperm and egg cells

are haploid


Mitosis1
MITOSIS

  • Makes ___ cells genetically _________ to parent cell & to each other

  • Makes ___ cells

  • Makes __________

  • Used by organisms to: increase size of organism, repair injuries, replace worn out cells

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm


Meiosis
MEIOSIS

  • Makes ____ cells genetically different from parent cell & from each other

  • Makes _____ cells

  • Makes ______________

  • Used for ____________

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm


What makes meiosis different
WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ?

  • SYNAPSIS & CROSSING OVER (PROPHASE I)

  • SEGREGATION &

    INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT (ANAPHASE I)

    3. Skip INTERPHASE II (NO S)

    CELL DIVIDES TWICE, BUT…

    ONLY COPIES DNA ONCE


What makes meiosis different1
WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ?

  • Homologous chromosomes pair up during ____________= ______________

This group of FOUR (4)

chromatids is called a

_________________

Images modified from: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/Crossover.gif


What makes meiosis different2
WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT?

1. Exchange of DNA betweenhomologous pairs = _____________during PROPHASE I

Allows shuffling of genetic material

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/Crossover.gif


Video 5

Video 5

Video 5

Crossing Over

  • Click the image to play the video segment. 11E

SEE CROSSING OVERANIMATION


Homologous chromosomes
HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES

Image modified by Riedell

  • SAME SIZE

  • SAME SHAPE

  • CARRY GENES for the SAME TRAITS

  • BUT ______________!

    (Don’t have to have the SAME CHOICES)

http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/genetics%20tutorial.htm


Crossing over

Image modified by Riedell

CROSSING OVER

  • Allows for_________________

    in different combinations

  • After crossing over, chromatid arms are________________ anymore

http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/genetics%20tutorial.htm


What makes meiosis different3
WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ?

2.Separation during ANAPHASE I

__________________ &

_______________________

Separates gene choices and allows shuffling of genetic material


Video 4

Video 4

Video 4

Segregation of Chromosomes

Click the image to play the video segment 11D.


Segregation anaphase i
SEGREGATION(Anaphase I)


Segregation crossing over together make even more combinations
SEGREGATION & CROSSING OVERtogether make even more combinations

See ananimation

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer2a.htm


Independent assortment
INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT

http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/mitosis/c13x9independent-assortment.jpg


Independent assortment at anaphase i
INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENTat ANAPHASE I

Lots of different combinations are possible!

This is why you don’t look exactly like your brothers and sisters even

though you share the same parents!



What makes meiosis different4
WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ?

Crossing over Segregation Independent assortment

are ALL ways MEIOSIS results in =______________________________

So daughter cells are ______________

from parents and from each other


What makes meiosis different5
WHAT MAKES MEIOSIS DIFFERENT ?

3. Skip INTERPHASE II (No S)

CELL DIVIDES TWICE, BUT …

ONLY COPIES ITS DNA ONCE

MITOSIS:

P

M

A

C

G1

T

S

G2

MEIOSIS:

( I )

G1

A

T

C

S

G2

P

M

( II )

A

P

M

T

C


Video 2

Video 2

Video 2

Animal Cell Meiosis, Part 1 & Part 2

Click the image to play the video segment 11B. & C


Figure 11-15 Meiosis

Section 11-4

Meiosis I


Figure 11-17 Meiosis II

Section 11-4

Meiosis II

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II

Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original.

The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis.

The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell.

Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells.


Mitosis vs meiosis interphase interphase i
MITOSIS vs MEIOSISINTERPHASE INTERPHASE I

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

  • DNA is spread out as chromatin

  • Nuclear membrane/ nucleolus visible

  • DNA is copied during S phase

  • Makes stuff new cell needs in G2

_______________


Mitosis vs meiosis prophase prophase i
MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS PROPHASE PROPHASE I

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

DNA scrunches into chromosomes

Nuclear membrane/

nucleolus disappear

Centrioles/spindle fibers appear

DNA scrunches into chromosomesNuclear membrane/ nucleolus disappear Centrioles/spindle fibers appear

_________________________


Mitosis vs meiosis metaphase metaphase i
MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS METAPHASE METAPHASE I

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

  • Chromosomes line up in middle

Chromosomes line up in middle

______________________________


Mitosis vs meiosis anaphase anaphase i
MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS ANAPHASE ANAPHASE I

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

APART:

Chromatids split

APART:

Chromatids stay together________________________


Mitosis vs meiosis telophase telophase i
MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS TELOPHASE TELOPHASE I

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

See TWO nuclei

Nuclear membrane/

nucleolus return

DNA spreads out as chromatin

Spindle/centrioles disappear

____________________


Mitosis vs meiosis cytokinesis cytokinesis i
MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS CYTOKINESIS CYTOKINESIS I

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

Cytoplasm splits

into 2 cells

______________________


Mitosis vs meiosis interphase ii
MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS INTERPHASE II

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

  • DNA is spread out as chromatin

  • Nuclear membrane/ nucleolus visible

  • DNA is copied during S phase

______________________________________________________


Mitosis vs meiosis prophase prophase ii
MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS PROPHASE PROPHASE II

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

  • DNA scrunches into chromosomes

  • Nuclear membrane/nucleolus disappear

  • Centrioles/ spindle fibers appear

____________________


Mitosis vs meiosis metaphase metaphase ii
MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS METAPHASE METAPHASE II

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

  • Chromosomes line up in middle

______________________


Mitosis vs meiosis anaphase anaphase ii
MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS ANAPHASE ANAPHASE II

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

Chromatids split and move apart

__________________________


Mitosis vs meiosis telophase telophase ii
MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS TELOPHASE TELOPHASE II

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

Two nuclei

Nuclear membrane/nucleolus returns

Centrioles/spindle fibersdisappear

DNA spreads out as

chromatin

_______________________


Mitosis vs meiosis cytokinesis cytokinesis ii
MITOSIS vs MEIOSIS CYTOKINESIS CYTOKINESIS II

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html

Cytoplasm splits

_____________________

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/divi_flash.html


Ways meiosis is different
Ways Meiosis is different?

  • Homologous pairs match up & trade DNA (SYNAPSIS & CROSSING OVER) in PROPHASE I

  • SEGREGATION

    • &INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT in Anaphase I

    • create genetic recombination

  • Skipping INTERPHASE II-

  • (Dividing TWICE but copying DNA once)

  • produces 1n cells



___________________= MAKING MATURE SPERM

Mature & grow flagella


Sperm provides DNA

All the starting nutrients,

organelles, molecule building blocks,

etc. have to come from the egg.


__________________ =

MAKING a MATURE EGG

Produces:

1 “good” egg

3 __________

CYTOPLASM DIVIDES UNEVENLY


WHY MAKE ONLY ONE “GOOD” EGG?

Sperm donates mostly DNA

Most of the cell parts and nutrients needed for baby come from EGG!

http://bestweekever.blogs.com/photos/uncategorized/imagemain_sperm_egg1_1.gif


“Self digest”

Using

________________

POLAR BODIES DEGENERATE (DIE)

= __________________

“cell suicide” for good of organism


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