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The Rise of Dictators. Benito Mussolini 1883-1945 Il Duce. First Fascist Dictator Italy- in political and economic crisis had support of middle class seeking stability 1922- march on Rome- Victor Emmanuel made him PM Could legislate by decree, police state. Mussolini.

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The Rise of Dictators

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The rise of dictators

The Rise of Dictators

Benito mussolini 1883 1945 il duce

Benito Mussolini 1883-1945Il Duce

  • First Fascist Dictator

  • Italy- in political and economic crisis

  • had support of middle class seeking stability

  • 1922- march on Rome- Victor Emmanuel made him PM

  • Could legislate by decree, police state



Adolph hitler 1889 1945 der fuhrer

Adolph Hitler 1889-1945Der Fuhrer

  • born in Austria-early life in Vienna

  • core of beliefs- anti-Semitic

  • wrote “Mein Kampf” in jail in 20’s

  • built Nazi party on dissatisfaction

  • won over elite and establishment

  • fear of communists-

  • became chancellor

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On your own copy of this picture, add labels to explain what the cartoonist suggests Hitler is doing?

Who are the other people in this picture and what does the cartoonist think of them?

January 1933 hitler became chancellor of germany

January 1933: Hitler became Chancellor of Germany

Hitler soon ordered a programme of rearming germany

Hitler soon ordered a programme of rearming Germany

Hitler visits a factory and is enthusiastically greeted. Many Germans were grateful for jobs after the misery of he depression years.

March 1938 nazi germany annexed austria

March 1938: Nazi Germany annexed Austria

Again, this went against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which banned Germany from uniting with Austria.

However, the arrival of German troops was met with great enthusiasm by many Austrian people.

March 1939 germany invaded czechoslovakia

March 1939: Germany invaded Czechoslovakia

Hitler had ordered the occupation of a part of Czechoslovakia known as the Sudetenland (in October 1938). Many hoped that that this would be the last conquest of the Nazis.

However, in March 1939, he ordered his troops to take over the remainder of Czechoslovakia. This was the first aggressive step that suggested that a war in Europe would soon begin.

The holocaust the plan to eliminate the opposition

The Holocaust- the plan to eliminate the opposition

  • Concentration Camps become death Camps (more than 100 of these)

  • Brought Jews and any in opposition from all over Europe (Denmark the exception)

  • Labor Camps- Arbeit Mach Frei

  • killed two out of every 3 Jews- 6 mil

  • Another 9-10 mil more

Joseph stalin and the ussr communist state

Joseph Stalin and the USSRCommunist State

  • oppression of the masses

  • ownership of production and land by the state

  • forced rapid industrialization

  • Purged away dissatisfied Russians

The japanese empire

The Japanese Empire.

  • Japan had a severe lack of natural resources.

  • Nearby Manchuria had plenty of coal, plus industries and ports.

  • China had already been carved up by the Western powers. Why shouldn’t Japan do the same?.

Japanese occupation of china

Japanese occupation of China.

  • By 1938 There were 1 million Japanese troops in China.

  • By 1941 2 million troops- but this was still not enough.

  • Japan could occupy only key areas and cities.

  • Out of fear they adopted The ‘Three All Campaign’ (‘Kill all, burn all, destroy all’)

  • She simply didn’t have enough soldiers however.

  • By 1945 4 million Chinese people had died and 60 million had been displaced.

  • Many Chinese cities lay in ruins.

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A baby caught up in the bombing of a Shanghai railway station

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Imperial Japanese expansion up to 1941

(in brown)

The world at war

The world at war

  • If people knew that dictators were a problem why did they not do anything?

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Policies of “Appeasement”

1. Appeasement: give dictators what they want and hope that they won’t want anything else

2. Begins with Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Italian invasion of Ethiopia, and continues with Hitler . . .

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August 1939: Germany and Russia signed a non-aggression pact

Hitler and Stalin (the Russian leader) signed a ‘non-aggression pact’.

They promised that neither country would attack the other in the event of war.

As part of the deal, Hitler promised Stalin part of Poland, which he planned to invade soon.

This photo shows the Russian foreign minister signing the pact, whilst Stalin stands smiling in the background

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The non-aggression pact was surprising. Hitler and Stalin were seen as natural enemies.

When Hitler talked of taking over new land for Germany, many thought that he meant Russia.

Hitler also hated Communism, the form of government in Russia

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September 1939: Germany invaded Poland

The Pact with Russia allowed Germany to march into Poland without fear of an attack from Russia.

On 3rd September 1939, Germany invaded Poland and started a War with Britain and France.

German troops marching into Warsaw, the capital of Poland.

Germany s attack in europe

Germany’s Attack in Europe

  • Denmark, Holland

  • Norway (Quisling)

  • Belgium and France

  • Britain

    • PM Winston Churchill

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“...We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end...We shall fight in the seas and oceans...We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing-grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender...”

— Winston Churchill

Germany s attack in europe1

Germany’s Attack in Europe

  • Balkans

  • Russia

  • US isolation

Germany s attack in europe2

Germany’s Attack in Europe

  • Polish invasion

    • Sept. 1, 1939

    • Blitzkrieg

7 th december 1941 the day of infamy

7th December 1941-the ‘day of infamy’.

The Japanese launch a surprise attack.

The us fleet lies destroyed

The US fleet lies destroyed.

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Unfortunately the Japanese destroyed battleships, but no US aircraft carriers. They also failed to either destroy or capture the harbour.

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(major powers)

(major powers)

Great Britain




United States



(note: France surrendered to Germany in 1940 (after 6 weeks of fighting)

Maximum axis control sept 1942

Maximum Axis Control (Sept 1942)

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  • During the German siege of Leningrad, over one million Soviets were killed.

Allied counterattacks in europe

Allied Counterattacks in Europe

  • Soviets are fighting

  • North Africa

  • Italy

  • Normandy

  • Battle of the Bulge

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  • Battle of El Alamein:

  • When? – October 1942

  • Where? - El Alamein, Egypt

  • Results? – British and U.S. forces drove the German army, led by General Rommel, from Egypt west into Tunisia.

  • Importance? – U.S. Gen. Eisenhower led the Allies in an invasion of Tunisia, from Algeria, forcing Rommel to surrender in May of 1943.

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  • In 1943, the Allies invaded Italy from North Africa, eventually liberating Rome from Nazi control in June of 1944.

Allied advance in El Guettar, Tunisia, North Africa, 3/21/43.

Opening a second front

Opening a Second Front

  • In order to ease pressure on the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin asked the Allies to open a second front by crossing the English Channel and attacking the Germans in France.

Help!! Attack the Nazis on the Western Front, quick!

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Alright, but you’d better appreciate this!

  • The planned invasion of Europe was called Operation Overlord, and General Eisenhower was named commander of the Allied forces in Europe.

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  • Eisenhower had to organize the eventual invasion of Normandy France, known as D-Day, which involved over 3 million Allied forces. (D-Day animation)

General Eisenhower gives the order of the day "Full victory - Nothing else" to paratroopers in England just before they board airplanes in the first D-Day assault.

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  • When? – June 6, 1944

  • Where? – Normandy, France

  • Results? – A fleet of 4,000 ships carried Allied troops to Normandy in order to invade France in an attempt to defeat the Germans.

  • Importance? – On August 25, 1944, Allied forces liberated Paris from Nazi rule.

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American soldiers wading through water into Nazi machine-gun fire on the coast of France.

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At Utah Beach, members of an American landing party help others whose landing craft was sunk by the Germans off the coast of France. The survivors reached Utah Beach, near Cherbourg, by using a life raft.

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Crossed rifles in the sand placed as a tribute to this fallen soldier.

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Medics help an injured American soldier.

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American assault troops of the 16th Infantry Regiment, injured while storming Omaha Beach, wait by the Chalk Cliffs for evacuation to a field hospital for further medical treatment. Collville-sur-Mer, Normandy.

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Battle of the Bulge:

  • When? – December 16, 1944

  • Where? – border areas near Luxembourg, France and Germany

  • Results? – The Germans began a counterattack against the Allies as the Allies attempted to drive the Germans completely out of France.

  • Importance? – This battle showed the desperation of the German forces. While the Germans were able to slow down the Allied advance, they could not stop it completely.

Tuskegee airmen

Tuskegee Airmen

  • The Tuskegee Airmen were the first African American military aviators in the United States armed forces. The American military was racially segregated, The Tuskegee Airmen were subject to racial discrimination, both within and outside the army. Despite these adversities, they flew with distinction. They were particularly successful in their missions as bomber escorts in Europe.

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Election of 1944

· FDR won an unprecedented fourth term in office in 1944.

· However, in April of 1945, FDR died, forcing Vice-President Harry Truman to assume the Presidency.

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Harry S Truman taking the oath of office after the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt, April 12, 1945.

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Victory in Europe

· By April of 1945, American and Soviet troops were closing in on Berlin.

· Adolf Hitler committed suicide on April 30, and Germany officially surrendered on May 7.

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Red army soldiers raising the Soviet flag on the roof of the Reichstag (German Parliament) in Berlin, Germany.

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V-E Day Celebrations in New York City, May 8, 1945.

The pacific theatre

The Pacific Theatre

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U.S. troops surrender to the Japanese in the Philippine Islands, May 6, 1942. A total of 11,500 Americans and Filipinos became POWs.

Bataan death march

Bataan Death March

  • The Japanese forced about 60,000 U.S. and Filipino soldiers to march 100 miles with little food or water after Japan defeated the Philippines in 1942.

Americans improvise to carry comrades who have collapsed along the road from a lack of food and water.

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  • About 10,000 people died or were killed during the march.

Allied POWs with hands tied behind their backs pause during the Bataan Death March.

Allied counterattacks in the pacific

Allied Counterattacks in the Pacific

  • Midway

  • Southeast Asia

  • Island hopping

  • Japanese main islands

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World War II: Major Battles (1942 – 1944)

When? – June 1942

Where? – Midway Island (Pacific Islands)

Results? - The U.S. sank four Japanese aircraft carriers.

Importance? – It limited Japan's ability to attack Hawaii again or other Allied positions.

Battle of Midway Island:

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Campaign for Guadalcanal:

  • When? – August 1942

  • Where? Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands (Pacific Islands)

  • Results? – The U.S. defeated the Japanese, gaining control of the island.

  • Importance? – Guadalcanal became a military base from which to counterattack the Japanese.

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Soldiers take a breather after making camp. The 25th Infantry Division was a large part of the effort to force the Japanese off Guadalcanal.

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Island Hopping in the Pacific

  • The two main goals of the U.S. in the Pacific were:

  • I. to regain the Philippines.

  • II. to invade Japan.

  • The U.S. began a policy of island hopping, using islands as stepping-stones towards Japan.

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· By February of 1945, the U.S. had recaptured the Philippines and captured the islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa.

Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima depicts five United States Marines and a U.S. Navycorpsman raising the flag of the United States atop Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima.

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· The Japanese continued to fight, oftentimes using kamikaze attacks against U.S. ships.

The Yokosuka D4Y3 dive bomber piloted by Yoshinori Yamaguchi strikes the USS Essex, November 25, 1944.

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Defeat of Japan

· The U.S. planned to invade Japan in 1945, though experts warned that the invasion could cost over a million casualties.

· Upon learning about the atomic bomb, Pres. Truman sent the Japanese the Potsdam Declaration, warning them to surrender or face “prompt and utter destruction.”

Stalin, Truman and Churchill at the Potsdam Conference.

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· Unaware of the atomic bombs, the Japanese ignored the Potsdam Declaration.

The first atomic bomb ever made was a uranium-enriched bomb. It was dropped on the city of Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945.

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August 6, 1945.

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· On August 6, 1945, the U.S. dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, killing at least 70,000 people and destroying most of the city.

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The aftermath of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.

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Ohmura Navy Hospital: A 14 year old girl after the bombing of Hiroshima at Ohmura Navy Hospital on August 10-11.

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· On August 9, the U.S. dropped another atomic bomb on the city of Nagasaki, killing at least 40,000 people.

Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 60,000 feet into the air on the morning of August 91945

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Before and after photos of downtown Nagasaki.

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· On August 14, Japan officially surrendered ending World War II. This date became known as V-J Day (Victory over Japan).

For millions of Americans, Alfred Eisenstaedt's 1945 LIFE photograph of a sailor stamping a masterly kiss on a nurse symbolized the cathartic joy of V-J Day.

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