The Rise of Dictators. Benito Mussolini 1883-1945 Il Duce. First Fascist Dictator Italy- in political and economic crisis had support of middle class seeking stability 1922- march on Rome- Victor Emmanuel made him PM Could legislate by decree, police state. Mussolini.
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The Rise of Dictators
On your own copy of this picture, add labels to explain what the cartoonist suggests Hitler is doing?
Who are the other people in this picture and what does the cartoonist think of them?
January 1933: Hitler became Chancellor of Germany
Hitler soon ordered a programme of rearming Germany
Hitler visits a factory and is enthusiastically greeted. Many Germans were grateful for jobs after the misery of he depression years.
March 1938: Nazi Germany annexed Austria
Again, this went against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which banned Germany from uniting with Austria.
However, the arrival of German troops was met with great enthusiasm by many Austrian people.
March 1939: Germany invaded Czechoslovakia
Hitler had ordered the occupation of a part of Czechoslovakia known as the Sudetenland (in October 1938). Many hoped that that this would be the last conquest of the Nazis.
However, in March 1939, he ordered his troops to take over the remainder of Czechoslovakia. This was the first aggressive step that suggested that a war in Europe would soon begin.
A baby caught up in the bombing of a Shanghai railway station
Imperial Japanese expansion up to 1941
Policies of “Appeasement”
1. Appeasement: give dictators what they want and hope that they won’t want anything else
2. Begins with Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Italian invasion of Ethiopia, and continues with Hitler . . .
August 1939: Germany and Russia signed a non-aggression pact
Hitler and Stalin (the Russian leader) signed a ‘non-aggression pact’.
They promised that neither country would attack the other in the event of war.
As part of the deal, Hitler promised Stalin part of Poland, which he planned to invade soon.
This photo shows the Russian foreign minister signing the pact, whilst Stalin stands smiling in the background
The non-aggression pact was surprising. Hitler and Stalin were seen as natural enemies.
When Hitler talked of taking over new land for Germany, many thought that he meant Russia.
Hitler also hated Communism, the form of government in Russia
September 1939: Germany invaded Poland
The Pact with Russia allowed Germany to march into Poland without fear of an attack from Russia.
On 3rd September 1939, Germany invaded Poland and started a War with Britain and France.
German troops marching into Warsaw, the capital of Poland.
“...We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end...We shall fight in the seas and oceans...We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing-grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender...”
— Winston Churchill
The Japanese launch a surprise attack.
(note: France surrendered to Germany in 1940 (after 6 weeks of fighting)
Allied advance in El Guettar, Tunisia, North Africa, 3/21/43.
Help!! Attack the Nazis on the Western Front, quick!
Alright, but you’d better appreciate this!
General Eisenhower gives the order of the day "Full victory - Nothing else" to paratroopers in England just before they board airplanes in the first D-Day assault.
American soldiers wading through water into Nazi machine-gun fire on the coast of France.
At Utah Beach, members of an American landing party help others whose landing craft was sunk by the Germans off the coast of France. The survivors reached Utah Beach, near Cherbourg, by using a life raft.
Crossed rifles in the sand placed as a tribute to this fallen soldier.
Medics help an injured American soldier.
American assault troops of the 16th Infantry Regiment, injured while storming Omaha Beach, wait by the Chalk Cliffs for evacuation to a field hospital for further medical treatment. Collville-sur-Mer, Normandy.
Battle of the Bulge:
Election of 1944
· FDR won an unprecedented fourth term in office in 1944.
· However, in April of 1945, FDR died, forcing Vice-President Harry Truman to assume the Presidency.
Harry S Truman taking the oath of office after the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt, April 12, 1945.
Victory in Europe
· By April of 1945, American and Soviet troops were closing in on Berlin.
· Adolf Hitler committed suicide on April 30, and Germany officially surrendered on May 7.
Red army soldiers raising the Soviet flag on the roof of the Reichstag (German Parliament) in Berlin, Germany.
V-E Day Celebrations in New York City, May 8, 1945.
The Pacific Theatre
U.S. troops surrender to the Japanese in the Philippine Islands, May 6, 1942. A total of 11,500 Americans and Filipinos became POWs.
Americans improvise to carry comrades who have collapsed along the road from a lack of food and water.
Allied POWs with hands tied behind their backs pause during the Bataan Death March.
World War II: Major Battles (1942 – 1944)
When? – June 1942
Where? – Midway Island (Pacific Islands)
Results? - The U.S. sank four Japanese aircraft carriers.
Importance? – It limited Japan's ability to attack Hawaii again or other Allied positions.
Battle of Midway Island:
Campaign for Guadalcanal:
Soldiers take a breather after making camp. The 25th Infantry Division was a large part of the effort to force the Japanese off Guadalcanal.
Island Hopping in the Pacific
· By February of 1945, the U.S. had recaptured the Philippines and captured the islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa.
Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima depicts five United States Marines and a U.S. Navycorpsman raising the flag of the United States atop Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima.
· The Japanese continued to fight, oftentimes using kamikaze attacks against U.S. ships.
The Yokosuka D4Y3 dive bomber piloted by Yoshinori Yamaguchi strikes the USS Essex, November 25, 1944.
Defeat of Japan
· The U.S. planned to invade Japan in 1945, though experts warned that the invasion could cost over a million casualties.
· Upon learning about the atomic bomb, Pres. Truman sent the Japanese the Potsdam Declaration, warning them to surrender or face “prompt and utter destruction.”
Stalin, Truman and Churchill at the Potsdam Conference.
· Unaware of the atomic bombs, the Japanese ignored the Potsdam Declaration.
The first atomic bomb ever made was a uranium-enriched bomb. It was dropped on the city of Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945.
August 6, 1945.
· On August 6, 1945, the U.S. dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, killing at least 70,000 people and destroying most of the city.
The aftermath of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.
Ohmura Navy Hospital: A 14 year old girl after the bombing of Hiroshima at Ohmura Navy Hospital on August 10-11.
· On August 9, the U.S. dropped another atomic bomb on the city of Nagasaki, killing at least 40,000 people.
Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 60,000 feet into the air on the morning of August 91945
Before and after photos of downtown Nagasaki.
· On August 14, Japan officially surrendered ending World War II. This date became known as V-J Day (Victory over Japan).
For millions of Americans, Alfred Eisenstaedt's 1945 LIFE photograph of a sailor stamping a masterly kiss on a nurse symbolized the cathartic joy of V-J Day.