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Englishes. What’s the implied meaning of the title? Englishes is a scale of styles in the use of English, it is necessary to know to tell one style from another and how to use different styles on different occasions appropriately.

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What’s the implied meaning of the title?
  • Englishes is a scale of styles in the use of English, it is necessary to know to tell one style from another and how to use different styles on different occasions appropriately.
  • The title “Englishes” (in the plural number) refers to the various styles of English.
Do you speak English?
    • ---- the English language, the language used by English-speaking people
    • The English are considered conservative in political matters.---used collectively to refer to the English people [the English][总称]英吉利人, 英国人, 英国人民
    • He is English. (no article)---used to state one’s nationality
Of course a scale of styles exists in all our use of English.
  • Scale—
  • the existence of a scale of styles in all our use of English
  • the necessity of having a good knowledge of these styles
  • Englishes: different English styles
style--style (WAY)
  • noun [C or U]
  • a way of doing something, especially one which is typical of a person, group of people, place or period:
  • Jones favours a dynamic, hands-on style of management.
  • His office is very utilitarian in style, with no decoration.
  • -style
  • suffix
  • in the style mentioned:
  • Japanese-style management
  • antique-style furniture
  • stylistic
  • adjective
  • In their second album, the band tried to expand their stylistic range.
  • Notice the stylistic similarities in the work of these three sculptors.
  • adverb
  • stylistically diverse/similar
  • styleless
  • adjective
  • without a particular style:
  • The production is deliberately styleless, and this takes the play out of its historical context.
  • stylized, UK USUALLY stylised
  • adjective
  • If something is stylized, it is represented with an emphasis on a particular style, especially a style in which there are
  • only a few simple details:
  • The rock drawings depict a variety of stylized human, bird and mythological figures and patterns
A scale of styles exists—there exists a range of styles, that is, there are different styles for different purposes and different situations. Styles of language may be arranged in order of formality, that is, formal—neutral---informal---familiar .
  • The word style, meaning “manner of speaking or writing”, refers to different things in different contexts.
The wider and suppler must be our command over a range of English Styles—our ability to use different styles of the English language for different occasions must cover a wider scope and be more flexible. Supple literally means “moving and bending (the body) easily and gracefully.
  • In spite of his old age, he is still supple.
  • When used figuratively , supple means---
  • Adaptable, flexible.
  • She has a supple mind.
  • She is quick to respond to ideas.
Youth is not a time of life; it is a state of mind; it is not a matter of rosy cheeks, red lips and supple knees; it is a matter of the will, quality of the imagination, a vigor of the emotions; it is the freshness of the deep springs of life.
  • Youth means a temperamental predominance of courage over timidity, of the appetite for adventure over the love of ease. This often exists in a man of 60 more than a boy of 20.Nobody grows old merely by a number of years. We grow old by deserting our ideals.
A haphazard knowledge of several styles may be worse than useless if we do not know the type of occasion on which each is appropriate ,or if we do not know when we are sliding from one to another.
  • A haphazard knowledge of several styles—an unsystematic, disorganized knowledge of several styles
Haphazard—not at all organized or arranged according to a plan. Examples:
  • Always plan ahead for your work. Never do anything in a haphazard way.
  • His haphazard system of keeping accounts resulted in confusion.
“It was extremely gracious of you to invite me, Lady Jones, and I’ve had bags of fun,”
  • Because “bags of fun” does not mix with “extremely gracious”, and because to use an expression like “bags of fun,” we should need to know Lady Jones well enough to be addressing her by her first name.
Does not mix with—does not go well with
  • Lady—a title used in front of the name of some female members of the nobility or of a woman with a high position.
  • To be addressing differs from to address in that the former is used for “here and now”, while the latter for the “general time”.
  • A person’s first name is his/her given name as distinguished from his/her surname, family name, or last name.
It is not---we must never tired of insisting---that bags of fun can be labelled “bad” or “slovenly” English, “a lazy substitute for thought”.
  • Tire of—become bored of;lose patience in
  • More examples:
  • He never tires of telling people about hitch—hiking in the States
A helpful assistant in a bookshop never tires of recommending good books to customers.
  • CF.: “ but I’m getting a little tired of these smard remarks”
  • Am tired of—have had enough of; an no longer interested in; am annoyed by
  • More examples:
  • The small child was tired of Potato soup because he had it every day.
  • Nobody is likely to become tired of Hamlet’s soliloquy.
A lazy substitute for thought—a carelessly thought-out expression to be used for (your) ideas. Lazy in this context means “carelessly or casually thought about”; it is used to show disapproval. Examples:
  • At the last minute, he backed out of the contest, giving the lazy excuse that he had a more important engagement elsewhere.
  • To say that the bankrupt company will revive is just a lazy assumption.
“Bags of fun” is nor more a lazy substitute for thought in its appropriate setting than is “extremely gracious” in the setting that is appropriate for this expression.
  • Neither “bags of fun” nor “extremely gracious” in its suitable context is a careless/casual expression of one’s ideas.
As we have seen repeatedly, it is the height of naivety to go round with a single yardstick, measuring English as “good” or “bad”.
  • The clause in italics is a non---restrictive relative clause introduced by the relative pronoun as, which is used as the object in the subordinate clause. The antecedent of as is the main clause it is the height of naviety to go around with a single yardstick, measuring English as “ good” or “bad”.
More examples:
  • As we all know, the overuse of insecticides and chemical fertilizers will bring about untold hard to mankind.
  • As you know, what is called “the trade” in Britain is quite sharply distinguished from the ordinary buying public.
  • As you will soon learn, there is no short cut in language learning. The more effort you put in, the better results you will get.
It is the height of naivety to go round with a single yardstick—it is simple-mindedness to the utmost if you use the language with only one standard of measurement.
Such an attitude is plainly ridiculous and can do nothing but harm to the good use of English.
  • What is the “good use of English” ?
  • Good use of English requires the appropriate choice of words for the expression of thoughts. To be in “good use of English”, therefore, a word must be used appropriately in a specific set of circumstances.
But it would be equally ridiculous to reverse the judgment just as flatly.
  • To change the judgment completely to the opposite of the original.
  • Flatly---completely, firmly (especially in expressions of a negative sense). examples:
  • She flatly refused to sing in the chorus.
  • He denied flatly that he had anything to do with the riot.
Our reaction to the words in this situation might well be to call them slovenly and meaningless.
  • Well---with good reason or quite possibly
  • Examples:
  • The authorities concerned couldn’t very well refuse to take Rachel Carson’s warnings seriously because they know this imagined tragedy could easily become a stark reality .
  • Tom’s uncle and aunt are really considerate, they might well give “not having enough space at home” as an excuse for not taking Tom off at such short notice.
We do not want merely polite noises in a review:
  • Polite noises—favorable comments; high---sounding polite words which are actually meaningless
stop being coy
Stop Being Coy
  • Explain the title “Stop Being Coy”.
  • Coy means “shy , diffident, bashful”. What the writer means here is : “ Do away with your shyness. Decide what you want to say and say it as directly as possible in plain words. Stop deceiving people and beating about the bush. Call a spade a spade.
I am an old cripple, drawing an old—age pension
  • Old---age pension 养老金
  • Some examples of euphemisms:
  • A mental home=an insane asylum
  • Slow=dull in mind
  • Residence=house
  • A reconditoned automobile=a used car
  • Stout=fat
working hard to raise vast quantities of vegetables on an allotment and well aware that, one of these days, I shall die.
  • An allotment---(in Britain) a small piece of land rented out, especially by a town council , to people who will grow vegetables on it.
Be aware that --know very well that
  • Be aware of
  • There is a growing awareness that
  • All this is fact---all this is the truth. Fact here meaning “the truth” is an uncountable noun.
I listen to the voice of officialdom
  • What is said by government officials
  • It turns out that I am a disadvantaged senior citizen
  • Turns out—happen to be in the end
  • Disadvantaged senior citizen—
  • Disadvantaged---adj. lacking in basic resources or conditions believed necessary for an equal position in society
  • Senior citizen –an elderly person. Esp, one who has retired
leisure garden—allotment

A small piece of land rented out, speciallyby a town council , to people who will grow vegetables on it.

I shall merely pass away

Pass away—die ,kick the bucket

What is Euphemisms?
  • A euphemism is the substitution of a mild or vague expression for a harsh or blunt one.  It is applied to achieve polistness and politeness to lessen the degree of unpleasantness and offensiveness.
According to encyclopedia Britannica
  • An alphabetical work of reference covering the entire field of human knowledge. By 1750, the system of engaging a body of expert compilers and editors was established and in 1768—1771 the first edition of encyclopedia Britannica made its appearance.
Euphemisms are considered overly squeamish and affected by contemporary writers, unless used for humorous effect.
  • Euphemisms are thought to be extrmely disgusting and pretentious /unnatural.
  • This may be so among the cognoscenti but there is little evidence to show that the masses.
  • Cognoscenti—people with knowledge of or experience in art, fashion, food, etc. it is an Italian word.
To support the argument by using the cliches which pour from the lips of trade union leaders would be too much like shooting sitting birds.
  • Cliché—a word of French origin, meaning “stereotype plate” or “printing block”. Hence any word or expression whose freshness and clarity have been lost through constant usage is called a cliché or stereotype. We all use cliches in ordinary conversation; but in writing, whether formal or informal, we should avoid such expression as “Hold your horses”, “don’t put the cart before the horse”, “last but not least”, “it’s a small world”, “she’s as pretty as a picture”.
Dilettante ornithologists
  • Dilettante—a person who amuses himself with an art or branch of knowledge without really taking it seriously
  • Amateur: a person who paints pictures, performs music, plays an instrument, etc. for the love of it, not for money
  • Ornithologist: an expert in the scientific study of birds
Oenanthe oenanthe ---wheatear this is a Latin term, meaning a species of bird which has a pale grey back, black wings and tail, white rump and pale brown under parts.
  • Wheatear—any small northern songbird of the genus oenanthe, especially Oenanthe oenanthe
Examples of gross understatement –exaggerated understatement. An understatement is a form of irony in which something is said to be less than it is in order to emphasize its full meaning and significance. Understatement leaves it to the readers to build up what has been played down and therefore prompts them to engage actively in imagining the importance of what has been understated. When an offensive idea or something startling, horrifying, shocking or painful is understated, it may be through a euphemism.
Examples of understatement:
  • When it is a bitingly cold day in winter, a Scottish person may say, “a wee bit chilly, isn’t it?”
  • When they mean that the matter is extremely important, some British people may describe it as “no small matter.”
If he says he’s “proper poorly”, there will be a funeral in the near future.
  • Proper poorly—very ill these more robust euphemisms –these euphemisms with vigor and vitality
  • Low IQ
  • IQ—abbreviation for “intelligence quotient”.
  • One’s IQ may be high or low.
All this effort to avoid unpleasantness is certain to fail, because the euphemism quickly acquires the stigma of the word it replaced.
  • Stigma—shameful reputation