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Electron Configuration. Chapter 5: Atomic Structure Section 5.3. Quantum States and Orbitals. Quantum state = a specific combination of values of variables such as energy and position that is allowed by quantum theory .

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Electron configuration

Electron Configuration

Chapter 5: Atomic Structure

Section 5.3


Quantum states and orbitals
Quantum States and Orbitals

  • Quantum state = a specific combination of values of variables such as energy and position that is allowed by quantum theory.

  • We group electrons into different quantum states to describe their electron arrangement.


Quantum states and orbitals1
Quantum States and Orbitals

  • There are 4 shapes associated with quantum states: s, p, d, and f.


Orbitals
Orbitals

  • Orbitals hold electrons, and show the area in which the electrons can be found.

  • S orbitals can hold 2 electrons

  • P orbitals can hold 6 electrons

  • D orbitals can hold 10 electrons


Electron configurations
Electron Configurations

  • Electron configuration = a description of which orbitals contain electrons for a particular atom.


Finding electron configuration
Finding Electron Configuration

  • The complete list of orbitals and the order in which they fill for all of the currently discovered elements is:

    1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p

  • The order tells a chemist exactly how the electrons are structured in an atom.



Book work
Book Work

  • Read pages 148-159.

  • Answer questions 43, 49, 52-54, 56, 58, 62.

  • Find the electron configurations for Calcium, Bromine, and Tungsten.



Arrow notation
Arrow Notation

  • We have learned the long method of writing out electron configuration.

  • We can also write electron config. using the box and arrow method.


Hund s rule of maximum multiplicity
Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity

  • When more than one orbital of equal energies are available then the electrons will first occupy these orbitals separately with parallel spins.

  • The pairing of electrons will start only after all the orbitals of a given sub level are singly occupied.


For example, the three electrons that are filled into the three 'p' orbitals can be represented in two different ways:


Nobel gas notation short hand method
Nobel Gas Notation three 'p' orbitals can be represented in two different ways: (Short-Hand Method)


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