Italian Renaissance The Artistic Context

Italian Renaissance The Artistic Context PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Important aspects of the Artistic Context. Rediscovery of Classical art / manuscripts, ruins of Roman monuments ? use of classical forms, subjects, Guilds

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Italian Renaissance The Artistic Context

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1. Italian Renaissance The Artistic Context

2. Important aspects of the Artistic Context Rediscovery of Classical art / manuscripts, ruins of Roman monuments ? use of classical forms, subjects, Guilds – artists began as apprentices, + eventually became masters with own workshop Competition between guilds e.g. Baptistery doors

3. Patronage – Civic / religious + increasingly, private commissions led to change in subject matter Status – from anonymous craftsman to artist-genius, man of learning in high society Science & nature study ? breakthroughs in perspective, anatomy, light, depiction of plants/landscape, Oil paint- new medium that replaced egg tempera

4. Mnemonic Renaissance - rediscovery of art/ruins/ manuscripts Girls - guilds Could - competition Paint - patronage Stars, - status of artist changed Sort - science / nature study Of. - oil paint

5. Painting Methods in the Renaissance (see handout!) FRESCO painting = painting on a plastered wall or ceiling Italian affresco (fresh) BUON FRESCO – paint applied to wet plaster A SECCO – paint applied to dry plaster

6. Buonfresco v. Fresco a secco YouTube - How to Paint Wall Murals : Fresco Painting for a Wall Mural

7. Main stages in Fresco Painting 1. Arriccio – A thick plaster underlayer (lime / sand) is placed on the area to be painted.

8. 2. Sinopia The artists sketches out the composition on the plaster layer with sinopia (a red earth pigment.)

9. A later technique was Spolvero Drawing was transferred by pricking holes on outline / pressing soot through

10. 3. Intonaco A smooth, thin layer of plaster is put on the area to be painted that day and the outlines of the picture is redrawn. Painting begins.

11. Different giornate (day stages) in fresco painting Giotto’s Lamentation

12. Buon frescoes are difficult to create because the “deadline” of the drying plaster plaster needs 10-12 hrs to dry artist began to paint after 1 hr ? continue until 2 hrs before the drying time i.e. giving 7-9 hrs working time.

13. Challenges cont’ Once a giornata is dried, no more buon fresco can be done, and the unpainted intonaco must be removed with a tool before starting again the next day. If mistakes have been made, it may also be necessary to remove the whole intonaco for that area—or to change them later ŕ secco.

14. Panel Painting Ptg on wood panels Sometimes covered in linen first GESSO layer put on first Gesso = chalk, whiting and size [glue]

15. Applying layers of gesso, sanding, polishing and smoothing between coats

16. Egg Tempera After the outline is drawn in metal point Egg Tempera (paint mixed with yolk + water) was applied Yolk =binding agent, quick drying Sometimes gold leaf was smoothed onto the panel in strips Later, oil replaced Egg tempera

17. E.g.s of Tempera Panel Ptgs Tempera is normally applied in thin, semi-opaque or transparent layers. When dry, it produces a smooth matte finish.

18. Features of Tempera PROS It dries quickly. The techniques of tempera painting can be more precise e.g. using small brush strokes, cross-hatching for modelling Colours do not change over time. (Oil paints darken, yellow, and become transparent with age.) CONS Because it cannot be applied in thick layers as oil paints can, tempera paintings rarely have the deep colour saturation that oil paintings can achieve.

19. Oil Paintings Netherlandish artist Jan Van Eyck credited with inventing oil painting in the early 15th C by Vasari Oil ptg = pigment + linseed oil, slow drying By 1540 most Italian artists were using oil rather than tempera

20. Mona Lisa Bye By Leonardo Bye! 1503

21. How much did you remember? Tell your partner the answers… What does the mnemonic R G C P S S O stand for? What is a fresco? How were drawings transferred to the wall or ceiling for the fresco? What were the advantages and disadvantages of tempera? Who was said to have invented oil ptg?

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