Important aspects of the Artistic Context. Rediscovery of Classical art / manuscripts, ruins of Roman monuments ? use of classical forms, subjects, Guilds
1. Italian Renaissance The Artistic Context
2. Important aspects of the Artistic Context Rediscovery of Classical art / manuscripts, ruins of Roman monuments ? use of classical forms, subjects,
Guilds – artists began as apprentices, + eventually became masters with own workshop
Competition between guilds e.g. Baptistery doors
3. Patronage – Civic / religious + increasingly, private commissions led to change in subject matter
Status – from anonymous craftsman to artist-genius, man of learning in high society
Science & nature study ? breakthroughs in perspective, anatomy, light, depiction of plants/landscape,
Oil paint- new medium that replaced egg tempera
4. Mnemonic Renaissance - rediscovery of art/ruins/ manuscripts
Girls - guilds
Could - competition
Paint - patronage
Stars, - status of artist changed
Sort - science / nature study
Of. - oil paint
5. Painting Methods in the Renaissance (see handout!) FRESCO painting = painting on a plastered wall or ceiling
Italian affresco (fresh)
BUON FRESCO – paint
applied to wet plaster
A SECCO – paint applied
to dry plaster
6. Buonfresco v. Fresco a secco YouTube - How to Paint Wall Murals : Fresco Painting for a Wall Mural
7. Main stages in Fresco Painting 1. Arriccio – A thick plaster underlayer (lime / sand) is placed on the area to be painted.
8. 2. Sinopia The artists sketches out the composition on the plaster layer with sinopia (a red earth pigment.)
9. A later technique was Spolvero Drawing was transferred by pricking holes on outline / pressing soot through
10. 3. Intonaco A smooth, thin layer of plaster is put on the area to be painted that day and the outlines of the picture is redrawn. Painting begins.
11. Different giornate (day stages) in fresco painting Giotto’s
12. Buon frescoes are difficult to create because the “deadline” of the drying plaster
plaster needs 10-12 hrs to dry
artist began to paint after 1 hr ? continue until 2 hrs before the drying time
i.e. giving 7-9 hrs working time.
13. Challenges cont’ Once a giornata is dried, no more buon fresco can be done, and the unpainted intonaco must be removed with a tool before starting again the next day.
If mistakes have been made, it may also be necessary to remove the whole intonaco for that area—or to change them later ŕ secco.
14. Panel Painting Ptg on wood panels
Sometimes covered in linen first
GESSO layer put on first
Gesso = chalk, whiting and size [glue]
15. Applying layers of gesso, sanding, polishing and smoothing between coats
16. Egg Tempera After the outline is drawn in metal point
Egg Tempera (paint mixed with yolk + water) was applied
Yolk =binding agent, quick drying
Sometimes gold leaf was smoothed onto
the panel in strips
Later, oil replaced
17. E.g.s of Tempera Panel Ptgs Tempera is normally applied in thin, semi-opaque or transparent layers. When dry, it produces a smooth matte finish.
18. Features of Tempera PROS
It dries quickly.
The techniques of tempera painting can be more precise e.g. using small brush strokes, cross-hatching for modelling
Colours do not change over time. (Oil paints darken, yellow, and become transparent with age.)
Because it cannot be applied in thick layers as oil paints can, tempera paintings rarely have the deep colour saturation that oil paintings can achieve.
19. Oil Paintings Netherlandish artist Jan Van Eyck credited with inventing oil painting in the early 15th C by Vasari
Oil ptg = pigment + linseed oil, slow drying
By 1540 most Italian artists were using oil rather than tempera
20. Mona Lisa Bye
By Leonardo Bye!
21. How much did you remember? Tell your partner the answers…
What does the mnemonic R G C P S S O stand for?
What is a fresco?
How were drawings transferred to the wall or ceiling for the fresco?
What were the advantages and disadvantages of tempera?
Who was said to have invented oil ptg?