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A PRESENTATION ON. Downloaded from CivilDigital.com. ENERGY GENERATION FROM BIO GAS PRODUCED AT STP. GUIDED BY: Dr A.B. Gupta Professor Civil Department. Presented By: K M Jaiswal M.Tech. Ist Sem. ID-2012 PCE5237. Downloaded from CivilDigital.com.

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A

PRESENTATION

ON

Downloaded from CivilDigital.com

ENERGY GENERATION FROM BIO GAS PRODUCED AT STP

GUIDED BY:

Dr A.B. Gupta

Professor

Civil Department

Presented By:

K M Jaiswal

M.Tech. Ist Sem.

ID-2012 PCE5237


Downloaded from CivilDigital.com

Excreta and wastewater sludge are resources. Finding ways to put them to their best uses is part of developing sustainable technologies.

At the same time, excreta and wastewater sludge – if not managed properly – can be dangerous to human health and the environment.

Source :-GLOBAL ATLAS OF EXCRETA, WASTEWATER SLUDGE, AND BIOSOLIDS MAGEMENT: UN-HABITAT


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WE CAN GENERATE ELECTRICITY AT PLANT, RUN IC ENGINES AND USE AS FUEL BY BOTTLING THE BIO GAS PRODUCED AT STP DURING ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTE WATER, WHICH OTHERWISE CAN BE HARMFUL FOR ENVIRONMENT IF ALLOWED TO ESCAPE IN ATMOSPHERE.

BY DOING THIS WE CAN SAVE ELECTRICITY BILL OF STP THERE BY MAKING THEM SULF SUSTAINING

BY REDUCING GHGs WE CAN EARN CARBON CREDITS


Case studies (1) 2 62.5 MLD Capacity DELWAS STP in JAIPUR (2) Welissa Farms -- Bantayan, Cebu (3) Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage and brewery sludge for biogas :Thammasat University, Thailand (4) Biogas from Sewage Treatment used to Energy Generation, by a 30 kW (ISO) Micro turbine (5) Bio Gas Production In Indian Perspective (6)Power Generation from gases at STP(Germany) (7)Some case studies to reduce H2s and increase CH4 contents in Bio Gas

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Power generation at a glance in world 2009
POWER GENERATION AT A GLANCE IN WORLD(2009)

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  • Basics of Anaerobic digestion process

  • Stage of Anaerobic digestion

  • Factors affecting production of Methane

  • Power generation units

  • Bio gas improvement..\power generation\Biomethane power.pdf

  • Scrubber

  • Chiller

  • Gas engine

  • How to increase methane

  • Case studies to increase Methane quantity

  • (reduction of Hydrogen Sulphide methods in various case studies )

  • Comments on Delawas Power Plant

Case studies referred


During Anaerobic treatment process of sewage (carried out in the absence of O2)for the stabilization of organic materials CH4 ,CO2, NH3, H2O, H2S are end product .

Anaerobic microorganisms

Organic materials + Nutrients CH4 + CO2 +NH3 + Biomass

Anaerobic processes

Anaerobic fermentation

Anaerobic respiration

FROM WHERE CH4 COME FROM………?

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COD Balance Aerobic Biodegradation

COD Balance Anaerobic Biodegradation


Anaerobic digester microbiology
Anaerobic digester microbiology in the absence of O

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1:  Extracellular hydrolysis (e.g. cellulose) (page 1)

(

2: Fermentation leading to organic acids (VFAs), acetate, CO2 and H2(page 7-8)

3: Fermentation leading to acetic acid (CH3COOH), H2 and O2

4: Methanogenesis leading to CH4,CO2 and H2O


Steps in anaerobic digestion
STEPS IN ANAEROBIC DIGESTION in the absence of O

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H2 and CO2

HIGHER ORGANIC ACIDS

COMPLEX ORGANICS

CH4

Insoluble organic material and high molecular weight compounds (lipids, polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids) into soluble organic substances e.g. amino acids and fatty acids .Further split during acidogenesis,

ACETIC ACID


COMPLEX ORGANIC MATTERS in the absence of O

Carbohydrates

Lipids

Proteins

hydrolysis

1

1

1

acidogenesis

Amino Acids, Sugars

Fatty Acids, Alcohols

INTERMEDIARY PRODUCTS

(C>2; Propionate, Butyrate etc)

1

1

acetogenesis

2

3

Acetate

Hydrogen, Carbon dioxide

Homoacetogenesis

5

4

methanogenesis

Overview Anaerobic Biodegradation

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Acetotrophic Methanogenesis

Hydrogenetrophic Methanogenesis

Methane

Carbon dioxide


Factors affecting ch4 production in asd
FACTORS AFFECTING CH4 PRODUCTION IN ASD in the absence of O

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  • PH (6.6 TO 7.6) (page 11)

  • NUTRIENTS AVAILABLITY.

  • TEMPERATURE (35C TO 55 C) (Page 10)

  • SOLIDS RETENTION TIME (SRT),(Page 8-9)

  • VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS (VFA) (page 12,18 -23)

  • MIXING OF SLUDGE

  • TOXIC AND INHIBITORY COMPOUNDS ( viz sulphide, light metal cations, ammonia, and heavy metals )


Factors affecting ch4 production in asd1
FACTORS AFFECTING CH4 PRODUCTION IN ASD ……... in the absence of O

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  • PRE-TREATMENT PRIOR TO ANAEROBIC DIGESTION : (During hydrolysis, cell walls are ruptured and extracellular polymeric substances are degraded resulting in the release of readily available organic material for the acidogenic micro-organisms. By means of efficient pre-treatment ,the suspended substrate can be made more accessible for the anaerobic bacteria, optimizing the methanogenic potential of the waste to be treated.

  • Various sludge disintegration pre-treatment: include mechanical grinding, ultrasonic disintegration, chemical methods, thermal pre-treatment, enzymatic and microbial pre-treatments. )


Bio gas properties
BIO GAS PROPERTIES …………… in the absence of O

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Bio gas properties1
BIO GAS PROPERTIES in the absence of O………

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Power generation from biogas produced at delawas plant
POWER GENERATION FROM BIOGAS in the absence of OPRODUCED ATDELAWAS PLANT

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  • CAPACITY STP 62.5 MLD UNIT I.

  • AMOUNT OF GAS GENERATED

    FROM ONE 62.5 MLD PLANT : 6000 M3/DAY 250 M3/hr

  • CALORIFIC VALUE OF GAS : 5000 TO 5600 KCAL/M3

  • TOTAL HEAT ENERGY OF GAS : 1300000 KCAL/hr

  • TOTAL ENERGY IN KW HOUR : 1509.3

  • EFFICIENCY OF POWER : 28 %

    GENERATION UNIT INCLUDING

    ENGINE AND GENERATOR

  • ELECTRICAL ENERGY PRODUCTION : 422.60 KWH

    EXISTING PLANT PRODUCING BIO GAS CONTINUOUSLY AND EXCESS GAS IS FLARED.

    Data made available from Delawas plant


LAYOUT OF 62.5 MLD STP AT DELAWAS in the absence of O

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MAIN GATE

PLANTION AROUND THE BOUNDRY WALL

FUTURE SPACE FOR 62.5 MLD (II PHASE)

ROAD

GRIT

SEPERATOR

4 NOS.

PRIMARY

SLUDGE SUMP

GAS FLARING

SYSTEM

MCC

TRANSFORMER

2 NOS

COARSE SCREENS

PRIMARY

SLUDGE

THICKNER

ROAD

INLET CHEMBER

BLOWERS

PMCC CUM

CONTROL ROOM

LAB& OFFICE

BUILDING

SECONDARY

CLARIFIER

2 NOS.

AERATION

TANK

DIGESTERS

2 NOS

RAW SEWAGE

SUMP

FINE MH

SCREENS

RETURN

SLUDGE SUMP

PRIMRY

CLARIFIER

PLANTION AROUND

THE BOUNDRY WALL

OUTLET PIPE

FOR TREATED

WATER

OUTLET

CHEMBER

CENTRIFUGE

UNIT

UNTREATED SEWAGE

FALLING IN NALAH


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Malabar STP process flow diagram ( page 17)


Required for one engine
REQUIRED FOR ONE ENGINE in the absence of O

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  • UNITS REQUIRED FOR POWER GENERATION SYSTEM

  • GAS HOLDER

  • INTER CONNECTING PIPING

  • GAS ENGINES

  • GAS SCRUBBER FOR REMOVAL OF H2 S (By NaOH at Delawas)

  • CHILLER UNIT : To remove moisture from gas coming gas from the Scrubber through the Blower, by cooling the gas to low temperature by condensing the moisture. A shell and tube type Heat Exchanger will be used for this purpose.


Gas holders at delawas double membrane type
Gas Holders at Delawas in the absence of O(Double membrane type)

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H2s scrubber
H2S Scrubber in the absence of O

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Biogas upgrading h2s scrubbing
Biogas upgrading (H2S Scrubbing) in the absence of O

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H2S Removal is needed to

  • reduce air pollution As it is toxic and odorous and gives sulfur dioxide on burning

  • protect power generation equipment from corrosion

  • increase safety of the operations


How to minimize h2s in bio gas
How to minimize H2S in bio Gas in the absence of O

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1. By reducing H2S by Process Control

(a) bio scrubber; bio filter; and bio trickling filter.( H2s is absorbed by Chemotrophic bacteria and elemental sulfur is produced)

  • 2. By Scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and chemical and thermal (page 2)

  • Oxidation from Bio Gas

    Scrubing is being done at DelawasUsingNaoH

  • H2S gets absorbed in water,

  • The gas from the bottom of the Scrubber enters the packed Column while liquid is collected in the Tank for recalculation.

  • In the II stage of scrubbing, gas is scrubbed with caustic solution in a packed Column. The Column is provided with ceramic rings to have enhanced surface area for mass transfer. This is a counter current scrubber and provides high scrubbing efficiency.

  • caustic solution ensures effective reaction of H2S and CO2 and their removal.


Gas engine
Gas Engine in the absence of O

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Flaring of excess gas
Flaring of excess Gas in the absence of O

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Selection of type of engine
SELECTION OF TYPE OF ENGINE in the absence of O

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POWER CAN BE GENERATED FROM BIO GAS FROM

FOLLOWING MACHINES.

  • DUAL FUEL ENGINE

  • GAS TURBINE

  • GAS ENGINE

  • GAS ENGINE IS MOST SUITABLE AND EFFICIENT FOR PRESENT APPLICATION.

  • AMONG THE THREE TYPES OF ENGINE GAS TURBINE IS NOT USED FOR BIO GAS FUEL SINCE IT IS NOT SUITABLE FOR LOW CAPACITY.

  • DUAL FUEL ENGINE IS USED IN REMOTE AREA WHERE NORMAL POWER SUPPLY IS NOT AVAILABLE OR ERRATIC. THIS ENGINE CAN BE RUN EITHER WITH DIESEL OR WITH BIOGAS & DIESEL COMBINATION.

  • DUAL FUELENGINE NEEDS MORE MAINTENANCE AND DIESEL STORAGE.


Capacity of gas holder
CAPACITY OF GAS HOLDER in the absence of O

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  • TOTAL GAS GENERATION : 6000 M3/DAY

  • STORAGE CAPACITY IS

    NORMALLY MAINTAINED : 25 % OF TOTAL

    IN POWER GENERATION

  • STORAGE VOLUME REQUIRED : 1500 M3

  • NO OF GAS HOLDER : 2 FOR EACH 62.5 MLD PLANT

  • CAPACITY OF EACH GAS HOLDER : 750 M3


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  • CAPITAL COST : 750 LAKHS

  • PER KW RUNNING COST : 3.32/KW hr

  • PURCHESE COST OF POWER : Rs 6/- KWhr.

  • PAY BACK PERIOD : 7.5 YEARS


How optimise gas production and optimum use of energy at stps
HOW OPTIMISE GAS PRODUCTION AND OPTIMUM USE OF ENERGY AT STPs

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  • BY EFECTIVE CONTROL OF PROCESS

  • AMONIA STRIPPING

  • THERMAL PRETREATMENT OF SLUDGE BY UTILIZING HEAT OF EXHAUST GASES

  • SCUM AND GREASE CAN BE FED IN DIGESTER

  • USE THERMOPHILIC STAGE FOR MORE GAS PRODUCTION BUT THIS NEED EFFECTIVE CONTROL

  • BIOLOGICAL REMOVAL OF SULPHER SO THAT H2S PRODUCTION CAN BE MINIMISED

  • IN WINTER DUE TO LOW ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE GAS GENERATION IN DIGESTER IS REDUCED.

    OTHER COST EFFECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES CAN BE USED TO REDUCE HYDROLYSIS TIME AND OVER ALL SRT OF ANAEROBIC PROCESS, MINIMIZATION OF TOXICANTS AND INHIBITION FACTORS TO INCREASE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF BIO GAS.


Thank you
THANK YOU USE OF ENERGY AT STPs

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QUESTIONS ?


Overall process of anoxic decomposition, showing the manner in which various groups of fermentative anaerobes cooperate in the conversion of complex organic materials ultimately to methane 1 CH42 and CO2. Acetate and H2 + CO2 from primary fermentations can be directly converted to methane, although H2 + CO2 can also be consumed by homoacetogens. But note how the syntrophs play a key role in anoxic decomposition by consuming highly reduced fermentation products in a secondary fermentation. By activities of the syntrophs, fatty acids and alcohols are converted to the substrates for methanogenesis and acetogenesis. This picture holds for environments in which sulfate-reducing bacteria play only a minor role, for example, in freshwater lake sediments, sewage sludge bioreactors, or the rumen. If alternative electron acceptors are abundant, as for example, sulfate in marine sediments, anaerobic respiration prevails, as syntrophs cannot compete for fatty acids/alcohols with sulfate-reducing bacteria or bacteria carrying out other forms of anaerobic respiration.

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