Delivery methodologies
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DELIVERY METHODOLOGIES. “Education is what’s left over after you’ve forgotten everything you learnt at school.” (Einstein). SO MANY CHOICES…. Who’d be happy for me to stand up here for the next 90 minutes and just deliver a lecture?

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Delivery methodologies

DELIVERYMETHODOLOGIES

“Education is what’s left over after you’ve forgotten everything you learnt at school.”

(Einstein)


So many choices

SO MANY CHOICES….

  • Who’d be happy for me to stand up here for the next 90 minutes and just deliver a lecture?

  • Think of a couple of things you have learned In your life…..what? where? who?

  • Think of the best teacher you ever had. Write down three words that describe them.


Instructional design

INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN

ADDIE:

  • Analysis

  • Design

  • Development

  • Implementation

  • Evaluation


One size does not fit all

ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL

It does little good to pit one theory against another or try to sway

people toward an exclusive practice in one method.  This has failed,

thankfully, decade after decade as real practitioners realize teaching and

learning is individualized and the needs of individuals may rely on the use

of many theories.  This also leads to my belief that the search for a

"unified theory" of learning that meets all contingencies is a fruitless

search.

In my opinion, the reality of good practice in teaching and learning is one

that lives on a continuum from complete teacher control to student anarchy.

Depending on the subject, the age and maturity of the student, the

student's ease or difficulty in learning based on both physiology and

environment, the scaffolding of knowledge required, and the expected

outcomes, that continuum shifts toward one end or the other.  For example,

in working with a learning disabled child or adult, it is possible that

certain behaviorist strategies are the most effective.  When facilitating

learning in a subject that requires memorization, drill and practice may be

the most effective. Additionally, where one is on the continuum may shift

during a single term of teaching.

Maggie McVay Lynch 18/7/06


Delivery methodologies

  • Sage on the Stage (drone on the throne)

  • Instructor centred


The transmission model

THE TRANSMISSION MODEL

  • “….is founded on the premise that communicating content to students will result in learning.“ (Jonassen)

  • Is this true? Does it work?

  • Many traditional approaches "contend that we can predict with accuracy the behavior and learning outcomes of organisms as complex as human learners.“

  • Can learning outcomes be prescribed and achieved? Is learning ultimately an individual thing where no two learners will benefit equally from an educational activity?


The dichotomy

THE DICHOTOMY

  • The real world v educational theory

  • The opposing side of the coin from the Transmission model is best represented by the theory of Constructivism


Constructivism

CONSTRUCTIVISM

Ruth Geer (University of SA)

  • Students learn best by interacting with others rather than working in isolation. Wittrock’s generative learning theory, now popularly termed constructivism (holds that) people learn best when working together. Through this collaboration students are motivated and encouraged to remain focused on the task. The resultant interactivity leads to knowledge - building which requires “articulation, expression, or representation of what is learned.” (Jonassen, 1999)


What does a constructivist course look like

What does a constructivist course look like?

Adapted from http://www.stemnet.nf.ca/~elmurphy/emurphy/cle.html, Constructivismfrom Philosophy to Practice

Adapted from http://www.stemnet.nf.ca/~elmurphy/emurphy/cle.html, Constructivismfrom Philosophy to Practice


What does a constructivist course look like1

What does a constructivist course look like?

Adapted from http://www.stemnet.nf.ca/~elmurphy/emurphy/cle.html, Constructivismfrom Philosophy to Practice

Adapted from http://www.stemnet.nf.ca/~elmurphy/emurphy/cle.html, Constructivismfrom Philosophy to Practice


Why does interactivity matter

Why does Interactivity Matter?

  • Learning is a social experience

  • Increases level of exploration; students more likely to engage with content and not just ‘consume’ it’

  • Aids critical thinking, higher order thinking, problem solving (ie deep learning as opposed to surface learning)


Good in theory but

Good in theory but…….

  • Very hard in practice

  • Influence of transmission model

  • Curriculum, training package, syllabus/time restraints – an interactive approach can take longer

  • Students may need to be taught to interact, collaborate, and trust each other


The role of content

The Role of Content

OR, Learners as co-designers?


Reality

REALITY:

I work almost exclusively with nationally endorsed units of competence – I am acutely aware of the need for any accredited course to lead participants to the elements that are required to be assessed. Also for any unit of competence to be allowed to be taught, the workgroup needs to show the auditor (me) that they have the resources to deliver and those resources include assessment tools and delivery materials. Therefore, if these delivery materials do not exist because the plan allows the learners to create them, they will not pass audit and not be allowed to deliver.

(Jann Manda, TAFE SA, 18/7/06)


What are you teaching

What are you teaching?

  • Knowledge refers to the cognitive domain.To know = pure theoretical knowledge.Know how = the application of knowledge

  • Attitudes refer to the affective domain that includes ‘learner’s’ values, beliefs, biases, emotions, and role expectations that may influence their disposition towards the learning environment.

  • Skillsare the actual abilities to put specific knowledge into practice (performance or competence). Show how = demonstrate the ability to use specific knowledge or adopt specific attitudesDo = demonstrate in his/her everyday work that he/she has integrated the objectives of the course or training session

    http://www.euteach.com/euteach_home/euteach_curriculum/euteach_planning/euteach_guide.htm


Teaching knowledge

Teaching Knowledge

The following are suitable for teaching ‘knowledge’:

  • Formal lecture (unidirectional monologue)

  • Mini lecture

  • Interactive lecture with student active breaks (bilateral exchange)

  • Reading

  • Audio visual materials (CD ROM, video tapes, etc)

  • Case studies

  • Individual research (Internet, literature review etc)

  • Group discussion

  • Field work (observations, discussions, etc)


Teaching attitude

Teaching Attitude

  • Group discussion

  • Exploration of personal attitudes

  • Focus groups

  • Exposure to views and values using real or ‘simulated’ situations, stories (anecdotes), videos, websites, role models

  • Promotion of attitudes such as ‘openness’ and ‘introspection’ (reflection)

  • Field work (observations, discussions, etc)


Teaching skills

Teaching Skills

  • Simulations (models, role plays)

  • Supervised practice

  • Making and examining videos

  • Guidelines for good practice (including check lists and handouts)

  • Group discussion

  • Field work (observations, discussions, etc)


What do employers want

What do employers want?

People:

  • With poise

  • With problem solving skills

  • Who can negotiate conflict

  • Who show initiative

  • Who can communicate

    That is, the so-called SOFT SKILLS

    What teaching methodologies best promote these skills?


Delivery methodologies

Who learns more? The person teaching a course or the person studying it?

LEARNERS AS CO - DESIGNERS…….


Assessment

ASSESSMENT

  • In some situations learners can be engaged in constructing the assessment process.

  • Digital Story Telling

  • Podcasts


Blended learning

BLENDED LEARNING

The eLearning Guild (2003) Blended Learning Best Practices Survey result was in favour of blended learning, with the obvious benefits to learners…. the overwhelming agreement (73.6%) was that it is more effective than classroom teaching on its own and that learners like it (68.6%).


Blended learning flexible delivery

BLENDED LEARNING/FLEXIBLE DELIVERY

  • Materials (content) online or print based

  • Delivered on location (face to face) or remotely

  • CMC (computer mediated communication) tools: email, forums, chat, blogs, wikis

  • Combination of face to face and online delivery


Some blended learning models

SOME BLENDED LEARNING MODELS:

  • Building and Construction (TAFE SA)

  • Property Services (TAFE SA)

  • MARC (Management and Research Centre) – TAA

  • Schefenacker Vision Systems (OHSW)

  • GippsTAFE (Vic) – Medical Terminology

  • Mobile Learning – Induction > PDAs (All Access Crewing; Qld)


Schefenacker vision systems

Schefenacker Vision Systems

  • OHSW

  • Plant Tour

  • Oral Assessment

    (voice board)


The new publishing media

THE NEW PUBLISHING MEDIA

  • Digital Story Telling

  • Blogs and Wikis

  • Podcasts

    > Powerful free tools for creating and distributing content


Networked learning

Networked Learning

Social Network Analysis

and

The Entergy Story

http://knowledgetree.flexiblelearning.net.au/edition08/la_majchrzak.html


Delivery methodologies

RHIZOMIC NATURE OF THE INTERNET


Delivery methodologies

getting your

students back

from the Internet

wilderness is a

bit like

HERDING

CATS


Engagement

ENGAGEMENT:

  • Motivate them, inspire them, annoy them, make them laugh, make them angry, but for goodness sake don’t bore them! (Thiagi)

http://thiagi.com/


Delivery methodologies

Michael Coghlan

e: [email protected]

http://users.chariot.net.au/~michaelc/


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