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Opening Question (10/11/10). If you had to pick four things to describe the Persian Empire based on the video last class, what four would you choose and why… Also name two things about humans that make them unique from every other species on Earth

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opening question 10 11 10
Opening Question (10/11/10)
  • If you had to pick four things to describe the Persian Empire based on the video last class, what four would you choose and why…
  • Also name two things about humans that make them unique from every other species on Earth
  • Things to remember (write ‘em down lil’ ones)
  • Ishmael Assignment #2 due on Wednesday by 9pm.
  • Unit Exam is on Friday for A-Day (Mon. = B-Day)
  • Make sure you look over the first quarter project that I put on the website (On the Unit II page)
hebrews and phoenicians

Hebrews and Phoenicians

What were the essential beliefs of Judaism?

How did Judaism influence Western civilization?

What forms of language and writing existed in early civilizations?

essential knowledge and understanding
Essential Knowledge and Understanding
  • The monotheism of Abraham became the foundation of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—religions that changed the world. The Hebrews were the first to become monotheists.
  • Language and writing were important cultural innovations.
  • As the Phoenicians traded their alphabet spread to new cultures
  • Culture is diffused in three ways (trade, conquest, missionaries)
origins of the hebrews
Origins of the Hebrews
  • Judaism begins with Abraham
    • Born in the city of Ur in Mesopotamia
  • Abraham makes a covenant with one God (Hebrew name = Yahweh)
    • He is considered to be the first Jewish person
  • Abraham is seen as the founder of Judaism

Covenant = agreement

  • Agreement with God was that he would be worshipped as the only god
  • The idea is that the covenant makes the Hebrews the ‘chosen people’ of God.
    • He offers to them a ‘promise land’ – same area that is Israel today
major beliefs
Major Beliefs
  • Holy Book = Torah
  • PlaceofWorship = Synagogue
  • Majorbeliefs = Ten Commandments (moral code of conduct), Chosen people of God
  • Monotheistic
  • Do not look for converts unlike Christianity or Islam
    • (small in numbers – 17 mil)

Terms you should know as we move forward

  • Exodus – Moses freeing the Jews from slavery in Egypt
  • Diaspora – Jews being expelled from holy land (Israel)
historical roots
Historical Roots
  • Abraham migrates (moves) from Ur to Canaan
    • Settles in land that God promised to him
  • God renews the Covenant with Abraham’s grandson Jacob
    • Renamed ‘Israel’ = ‘he who struggles with God’
      • “Children of Israel”
historical roots1
Historical Roots
  • Around 1400 BCE the Jews resettle in Israel

BabylonianCaptivity

  • 586 BCE – Babylonians conquer Israel and destroy the temple of Solomon
  • Jews are exiled from homeland and forced into Babylon
    • 50 years later Cyrus the Great of Persia conquers Babylon and allows the Jews to return to Israel
    • 2nd Temple of Solomonis built
  • Egyptians conquer Canaan and enslave the Jews
  • Moses freed the Jews from slavery and out of Egypt
    • Crosses the Red Sea onto the Sinai Peninsula
  • Receives the Torah and Ten Commandments at Mt. Sinai
    • Torah is the first five books of the Old Testament
how does culture spread
How does culture spread???
  • CulturalDiffusion = cultural aspects of a society/civilization spreading from one region to another
  • Three ways this happens
    • Trade
    • Conquest
    • Missionaries
      • Can you think of an example for each????
phoenicians carriers of civilization
Phoenicians – “Carriers of Civilization”
  • Phoenicia – “purple dye” in Greek
  • Not a lot of land to farm
    • Took to the seas and traded for things they needed
    • Became the biggest traders and spreaders of culture in the ancient world
sailing the mediterranean
Sailing the Mediterranean
  • Set up trading post all over the Med. Sea
  • 1st to sail through the strait of Gibraltar
    • Went north and Spain
    • Went South along Africa’s coast
trade made them famous
Trade made them famous
  • Goods/Cultural Ideas that Phoenicians offered
    • Lumber – Cedar
    • Clothes – cotton, flax, wool
    • Glass – made from sand
    • Metals – Gold and Silver
    • Purple Dye - used Murex shell fish
      • Becomes a sign of wealth and power
    • Alphabet – 22 letters (all consonants)
      • Greek would later adopt this -> then the Romans…
try to come up with 3 for each category
Try to come up with 3 for each category
  • Definition of Culture = the beliefs, customs, practices, achievements and social behaviorthat characterizes a particular nation or people
end of day question 10 11 10
End of Day Question (10/11/10)
  • If you had to write three sentences about the Phoenicians and Hebrews… what would you write???
  • Next Class = Test Review…
  • Open House is Tuesday Oct. 12th @6pm
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