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Andrew Jackson: Democrat or Demagogue?. 1) Andrew Jackson’s election as President marked the beginning of a new age in American political history. Assess the validity of this generalization. (71)

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  • 1) Andrew Jackson’s election as President marked the beginning of a new age in American political history. Assess the validity of this generalization. (71)

  • 2) At various times between 1789 and 1861, Americans changed their positions on the constitutional question of loose construction or strict construction as best suited their economic or political interests. Discuss this statement with reference to any TWO individuals or groups who took positions on this constitutional question. (81)

  • 3) Although historically represented as distinct parties, the Federalists and the Whigs in fact shared a common political ideology, represented many of the same interest groups, and proposed similar programs and policies. Assess the validity of the statement. (91)

  • 4) Analyze the extent to which Two of the following influenced the development of democracy between 1820 and 1840.

    • Jacksonian economic policy Changes in electoral politics

    • Second Great Awakening Westward movement (96)

  • 5) How did Two of the following contribute to the reemergence of a two party system in the period 1820 to 1840?

    • Major political personalities States’ rights Economic issues (99)


I the inauguration of andrew jackson 1829
I. The Inauguration of Andrew Jackson, 1829 beginning of a new age in American political history. Assess the validity of this generalization. (71)

  • Democrats: “triumph of great principle of self-government” and democracy

  • Validation after “corrupt bargain” of 1824: JQA made Henry Clay Secy’y State in return for support in House vote

    • 2002 Doc I

  • Jackson met people at White House afterward, informally

  • Huge crowd (20,000) trash the place


Ii growth of mass politics
II. Growth of Mass Politics beginning of a new age in American political history. Assess the validity of this generalization. (71)

  • Jacksonian Democracy: growth of mass politics (participation + techniques) began before AJ (Jeffersonians) AJ beneficiary

    A. Change in Attitudes

  • pre-1790s: parties are factions evil, should be stamped out entirely

  • 1790s: parties as necessary evil need to form to protect nation against the others (Fed/D-R), who are the real faction; once done, party will dissolve

  • Post-1800: parties as positive good educate + involve voters in political process necessary for mass democracy

    • 1990 Doc A


B stages of development
B. Stages of Development beginning of a new age in American political history. Assess the validity of this generalization. (71)

  • 1) Expansion of electorate (collapse prop req)

  • 1810-1821: 6 western states w/minimal or no prop req

  • 4 old states ratify new constitutions lowering/eliminating prop req


2. Jump in voter turnout beginning of a new age in American political history. Assess the validity of this generalization. (71)

  • 1828: 58%; 1840: 80%

    • 2000: 51.3%

      3. New efforts to mobilize

  • Political rallies, parades, songs, slogans, badges, picnics, mud slinging + character assassination

    • Modern political tactics

    • Dangers of mobilization: Doc E


George Caleb Bingham, “Stump Speaking” beginning of a new age in American political history. Assess the validity of this generalization. (71)


“The County Election” beginning of a new age in American political history. Assess the validity of this generalization. (71)



C developments under jackson
C. Developments Under Jackson adulterer (had not been formally divorced)

  • 1) Spoils system: civil servants appointed by past admin should be tossed out patronage for party loyal

  • 2) National party convention: previously nominated by state legis./Congressional caucus 1832 1st national convention

    • Theory was more democratic, in fact more liable to party machinations


Iii old hickory symbol for an age
III. “Old Hickory”: Symbol for an Age adulterer (had not been formally divorced)

A. Life of Jackson

  • Born into dirt poor frontier family, rises up as lawyer (suing debtors), land speculator, planter (the Hermitage)

  • Served in political offices in Tenn. (state house, senate, supreme court; US Senate 1823-4)

  • Fought at age 13 in AR; led Tenn. militia against Creek in Alabama; Battle of New Orleans: gives nation something to be proud of tours the nation

    • Compare to GW who goes home: AJ running for office not standing


B jacksonian values
B. Jacksonian Values adulterer (had not been formally divorced)

  • 1) “Nature’s Nobleman”: contact w/nature produces greatness; rose w/o family connections, political corruption, or formal education

    • Disguises £300 inheritance from Irish relative that got him started

  • AJ presented self as plain cultivator of soil (but: lawyer, slave owner)

  • Anti-intellectualism: the “plowman” vs. the “professor”


2 man chosen by god
2. Man Chosen by God adulterer (had not been formally divorced)

  • Evidence from miraculous victory at NO (14,000 Brits vs. 4,000 Americans) and 1835 survived assassination attempt (Richard Lawrence)

    • G.W. Bush: “I feel like God wants me to run for President. I can't explain it, but I sense my country is going to need me. Something is going to happen... I know it won't be easy on me or my family, but God wants me to do it.”


3 man of iron will
3. Man of Iron Will adulterer (had not been formally divorced)

  • 1806 duel w/Charles Dickinson (remarks about AJ’s wife): CD best shot in Tenn lets CD fire first AJ hit but makes no sign, fires and kills CD

  • AJ hit near the heart, walked off field w/o making sign injured

    • (bullet could not be removed)


C election 1828
C. Election 1828 adulterer (had not been formally divorced)

  • AJ offered stability in middle of tumultuous time

  • BUT: AJ instrument of that change: market, expansion, Indian Removal, land speculation, mass politics


Iv democrat or demagogue
IV. Democrat or Demagogue? adulterer (had not been formally divorced)

A. Democrat

  • AJ claimed to be man of the people: only position in 1828 was that Adams a monocrat + aristocrat

  • AJ idealized “producers” (ind. workingmen: farmers, laborers, artisans) vs. “parasites” (bankers, lawyers)

  • Probably really believed it even though sued “producers” for “parasites”


  • Wanted limited gov’t: Gov’t used by rich against poor adulterer (had not been formally divorced)

  • Believed in State power over central gov’t: 1830 vetoed Maysville Road bill Fed should not fund projects w/in single state

    • Also hurt Henry Clay’s (KY) nationalist program pay back

  • Argued that spoils system made gov’t more responsive bureaucracy would support new Pres. rather than obstruct (Marbury v. Madison)

  • Feared centralization of economic power: opposed fed support banks + paper money

    • Nostalgic for Jeffersonian America: yeoman, rural


B demagogue
B. Demagogue adulterer (had not been formally divorced)

  • 1. “Imperial” President: reduced fed power, increased Pres’l power spoils system, Kitchen Cabinet, violated separation powers + checks and balances

    • Indian Removal (Doc G)

    • Veto: Doc B vs C


2 nullification crisis
2. Nullification Crisis adulterer (had not been formally divorced)

  • 1828: Congress raises high tariffs (protect North) South “Tariff of Abominations”

  • John C. Calhoun, South Carolina, Exposition and Protest: states can nullify fed laws (VA + KY Resolves); state sovereignty

    • JC Vice President

    • Doc F

  • 1832: SC nullifies tariff laws (’28 + ’32) AJ privately threatened to invade SC and hang JC;

  • Publicly: moved troops to fed forts in SC, issued proclamation denying nullification, Force Act authority to call up troops


3 bank war
3. Bank War adulterer (had not been formally divorced)

  • Second Bank of the US (charter to expire 1836): private bank, federal funds power over state banks, concerns from Panic of 1819 opposition (esp. western + urban workers)

    • Nicholas Biddle (bank pres.) operated Bank for owners’ benefit, seen as eastern patrician

  • NB allies w/ H. Clay and Daniel Webster (Mass.) to protect Bank in 1832 election asked Congress to re-charter Bank in 1832 (hoping that AJ wouldn’t risk the loss of PA voters (where BUS located)


The lady holding a bottle of port says, "Darken his daylights, Nick. Put the Screws to him my tulip!" Daniel Webster: "Blow me tight if Nick ain't been crammed too much. You see as how he's losing his wind!" Henry Clay: "Hurrah Nick my kiddy! Hit him a pelt in the smellers!" Martin Van Buren: "Go it Hickory, my old Duffer! give it to him in the bread basket, it will make him throw up his deposits!" Major Jack Downing (a mythical Jacksonian hero): "I swan if the Ginral hain't been taken lessons from Fuller!" The man standing next to the whiskey bottle: "Hurrah my old yallow flower of the forrest, walk into him like a streak of Greased lightning through a gooseberry bush!"


  • AJ vetoes the BUS bill and wins election easily daylights, Nick. Put the Screws to him my tulip!" Daniel Webster: "Blow me tight if Nick ain't been crammed too much. You see as how he's losing his wind!" Henry Clay: "Hurrah Nick my kiddy! Hit him a pelt in the smellers!" Martin Van Buren: "Go it Hickory, my old Duffer! give it to him in the bread basket, it will make him throw up his deposits!" Major Jack Downing (a mythical Jacksonian hero): "I swan if the Ginral hain't been taken lessons from Fuller!" The man standing next to the whiskey bottle: "Hurrah my old yallow flower of the forrest, walk into him like a streak of Greased lightning through a gooseberry bush!" declares war on bank deposits Fed $ in “pet banks” + Deposit Act (1836) state banks take on function of BUS but under AJ’s control

  • “King Andrew I”

    • National Republicans Whigs vs. Democrats


4 the veto
4. The Veto daylights, Nick. Put the Screws to him my tulip!" Daniel Webster: "Blow me tight if Nick ain't been crammed too much. You see as how he's losing his wind!" Henry Clay: "Hurrah Nick my kiddy! Hit him a pelt in the smellers!" Martin Van Buren: "Go it Hickory, my old Duffer! give it to him in the bread basket, it will make him throw up his deposits!" Major Jack Downing (a mythical Jacksonian hero): "I swan if the Ginral hain't been taken lessons from Fuller!" The man standing next to the whiskey bottle: "Hurrah my old yallow flower of the forrest, walk into him like a streak of Greased lightning through a gooseberry bush!"

  • AJ vetoed more bills than all prev. Pres combined Congress had to consider possible veto when debating Pres became true rival/equal power for 1st time

  • AJ believed he imposed his will as the will of the people could ignore/override those who opposed him (BUS, Clay, Congress, John Marshall, Cherokees, etc.)


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