Language Preview. Chapter 1. Human Language Specialization. Origin of Language: Theories. Divine Gift Monogenetic theory Human Invention Echoic (imitative) Cries of nature Rhythmical grunts Love songs Evolution of Linguistic Capacity Anatomical Neurological. Creative System.
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…more details coming at the end of the chapter…
He ain’t got none.
“Ungrammatical” means a native speaker would not have a reasonable expectation that the intended message will be understood
Language is systematic and rule-governed.
Language is generative (has creative potential).
Language is a set of arbitrary symbols.
The symbols have conventionalized meanings
The symbols are primarily vocal.
Language is essentially human.
Language is used for communication.
Language operates in a speech community or culture.
Language is acquired by all people in much the same way; language acquisition and language learning both have universal characteristics.
“the system of operations for creating an indefinite number of sentences out of a finite number of elements”
“Linguistic theory is concerned primarily with an ideal speaker-listener, in a completely homogeneous speech-community, who knows its language perfectly and is unaffected by such grammatically irrelevant conditions as memory limitation, distractions, shifts of attention and interest, and errors in applying his [/her] knowledge of the language in actual performance.”
“A child from whom any and all of the grammatical sequences of a language might come with equal likelihood would be, of course, a social monster. Within the social matrix in which it acquires a system of grammar, a child acquires also a system of its use regarding persons, places, purposes, other modes of communication, etc.--all the components of the communicative events, together with attitudes and beliefs regarding them. There also develop patterns of the sequential use of language in conversation, address, standard routines, and the like. In such acquisition resides the child’s sociolinguistic competence (or more broadly, communicative competence), its ability to participate in its society as not only a speaking but also a communicating member.”