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Body Systems . Human Anatomy & Physiology. Skeletal. Functions of Skeletal System. Support: The skeleton is the framework of the body, it supports the softer tissues and provides points of attachment for most skeletal muscle. What would a person look like with no skeleton?. Protection.

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Body systems

Body Systems

Human Anatomy & Physiology



Functions of skeletal system
Functions of Skeletal System

  • Support: The skeleton is the framework of the body, it supports the softer tissues and provides points of attachment for most skeletal muscle.

  • What would a person look like with no skeleton?


Protection
Protection

  • The skeleton provides mechanical protection for many of the body’s internal organs, reducing risk of injury to them.

  • Can you provide an example of an organ that is protected by a bone(s)?


Functions of skeletal system1
Functions of Skeletal System

  • Assisting in Movement:

    • Skeletal muscles are attached to bones, therefore when the associated muscles contract they cause bones to move.

    • What muscle bends your arm?


Functions of skeletal system2
Functions of Skeletal System

  • Storage of Minerals:

    • Bone tissues store several minerals, including calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P).

    • Where do you get most of your calcium from?


Functions of skeletal system3
Functions of Skeletal System

  • Production of Blood Cells:

    • The red bone marrow inside some larger bones (e.g. femur), blood cells are produced.


Functions of skeletal system4
Functions of Skeletal System

  • With increasing age, some bone marrow changes from ‘red bone marrow’ to ‘yellow bone marrow.’

  • Yellow bone marrow consists mainly of adipose cells, and a few blood cells.

  • It is an important chemical energy reserve.


Skeletal system quiz review
Skeletal System Quiz Review

  • Functions of Skeletal System

    • Support

    • Protection

    • Assisting in Movement

    • Storage of Minerals

    • Production of Blood Cells



Muscle types
Muscle Types

  • Cardiac

    • Cardiac muscles are involuntary and found only in the heart.

  • Smooth

    • Your smooth muscles, like your cardiovascular muscles, are involuntary. They make up your internal organs, such as your stomach, throat, small intestine, and all the others, except your heart.

  • Skeletal

    • The skeletal muscles are the only voluntary muscles of your body, and make up what we call the muscular system. They are all the muscles that move your bones and show external movement.


Cardiac muscle functions
Cardiac MuscleFunctions

  • Heart muscle: also called cardiac muscle makes up the wall of the heart.

  • Throughout our life, it contracts some 70 times per minute pumping about 5 liters of blood each minute.


Smooth muscle functions
Smooth Muscle Functions

  • Smooth muscle is found in the walls of all the hollow organs of the body (except the heart). Its contraction reduces the size of these structures.

  • It◦regulates the flow of blood in the arteries◦moves your breakfast along through your gastrointestinal tract expels urine from your urinary bladder, sends babies out into the world from the uterus◦regulates the flow of air through the lungsThe contraction of smooth muscle is generally not under voluntary control.


Skeletal muscle functions
Skeletal Muscle Functions

  • Skeletal muscle, as its name implies, is the muscle attached to the skeleton.

  • It is also called striated muscle.

  • The contraction of skeletal muscle is under voluntary control.

  • Skeletal muscles are the mechanism for powering human movement.





Blood flow
Blood Flow

  • Right Atrium

  • Atrioventricular Valve

  • Right Ventricle

  • Tricuspid Valve

  • Pulmonary Artery

  • Lungs

7. Pulmonary Veins

8. Left Atrium

9. Mitral Valve

10. Left Ventricle

11. Aortic Valve

12. Aorta

13. All parts of the body


Circulatory system
Circulatory System

  • The Circulatory System is responsible for transporting materials throughout the entire body.

  • It transports nutrients, water, and oxygen to your billions of body cells and carries away wastes such as carbon dioxide that body cells produce.

  • It is an amazing highway that travels through your entire body connecting all your body cells.


Parts of circulatory system
Parts of Circulatory System

  • The circulatory System is divided into three major parts:

  • Heart

  • Blood

  • Blood Vessels


Heart
Heart

  • The Heart is an amazing organ.

  • The heart beats about 3 BILLION times during an average lifetime.

  • It is a muscle about the size of two fists.

  • It's job is to pump your blood and keep the blood moving throughout your body.


Your role
Your Role

  • It is your job to keep your heart healthy and there are three main things you need to remember in order to keep your heart healthy.

  • 1.Exercise on a regular basis. Get outside and play. Keep that body moving (walk, jog, run, bike, skate, jump, swim).

  • 2.Eat Healthy. Remember the Food Pyramid and make sure your eating your food from the bottom to top.

  • 3.Don't Smoke! Don't Smoke! Don't Smoke! Don't Smoke! Don't Smoke!


Blood
Blood

  • The blood is an amazing substance that is constantly flowing through our bodies.

  • Your blood is pumped by your heart.

  • Your blood travels through thousands of miles of blood vessels right within your own body.


Blood1
Blood

  • Your blood carries nutrients, water, oxygen and waste products to and from your body cells.

  • A young person has about a gallon of blood. An adult has about 5 quarts.

  • Your blood is not just a red liquid but rather is made up of liquids, solids and small amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide.


Red blood cells
Red Blood Cells

  • Red Blood Cells are responsible for carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide.

  • Red Blood Cells pick up oxygen in the lungs and transport it to all the body cells.

  • After delivering the oxygen to the cells it gathers up the carbon dioxide(a waste gas produced as our cells are working) and transports carbon dioxide back to the lungs where it is removed from the body when we exhale(breath out).


White blood cells
White Blood Cells

  • White Blood Cells help the body fight off germs.

  • White Blood Cells attack and destroy germs when they enter the body.

  • When you have an infection your body will produce more White Blood Cells to help fight an infection.


Platelets
Platelets

  • Platelets are blood cells that help stop bleeding.

  • In order to plug up the holes where the blood is leaking from the platelets start to stick to the opening of the damaged blood vessels.

  • As the platelets stick to the opening of the damaged vessel they attract more platelets, fibers and other blood cells to help form a plug to seal the broken blood vessel.

  • We call our Platelet plugs scabs


Plasma
Plasma

  • Plasma is the liquid part of the blood.

  • Approximately half of your blood is made of plasma.

  • The plasma carries the blood cells and other components throughout the body.

  • Plasma is made in the liver.


Blood vessels
Blood Vessels

  • Three types of blood vessels

  • Arteries

  • Capillaries

  • Veins


Blood vessels1
Blood Vessels

  • Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen rich blood AWAY from the heart. Remember, A A Arteries Away, A A Arteries Away, A A Arteries Away.

  • Capillaries are tiny blood vessels as thin or thinner than the hairs on your head. Capillaries connect arteries to veins. Food substances(nutrients), oxygen and wastes pass in and out of your blood through the capillary walls.

  • Veins carry blood back toward your heart.


Amazing facts
Amazing Facts

  • One drop of blood contains a half a drop of plasma, 5 MILLION Red Blood Cells, 10 Thousand White Blood Cells and 250 Thousand Platelets.

  • You have thousands of miles of blood vessels in your body.

  • Keep your heart healthy...it's going to have to beat about 3 BILLION times during your lifetime!



Nervous system
Nervous System

  • The most complex system

  • Serves as the bodies control center and communications electrical-chemical wiring network

  • Detection, interpretation, and respondent to changes in internal and external conditions.


Nervous system1
Nervous System

  • The nervous system integrates countless bits of info and generates appropriate reactions by sending messages through nerve to muscles and/or glands.


Central nervous system cns
Central Nervous System (CNS)

  • The Brain and Spinal Cord and Neurons are the CNS.



Brain1
Brain

  • The brain has billions of neurons that receive, analyze, and store information about internal and external conditions.

  • The brain is the source of conscious and unconscious thoughts, moods, and emotions


Four major brain divisions
Four Major Brain Divisions

Cerebrum – large rounded area that divides into left and right hemispheres.

Diencephalon – forms the central part of the brain.

Cerebellum – rear of the brain.

Brain Stem – connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord.


Cerebrum
Cerebrum

  • Controls muscles and glands on the opposite side of the body

  • 85% of the total brain weight

  • Responsible for language, conscious thought, hearing, sense of touch, memory, personality development, and vision.


Diencephalon
Diencephalon

  • Three parts:

  • Hypothalamus

    • Major Switchboard

  • Thalamus

  • Epithalamus


Hypothalamus
Hypothalamus

  • Main neural control center

  • Regulates organ-related activities, food and fluid intake, sleep and wake patterns, sex drive, and emotional states.


Thalamus
Thalamus

  • Relay and preprocessing stations for the many nerve impulses that pass through it.


Epithalamus
Epithalamus

  • The most posterior portion of the Diencephalon.

  • Function not fully understood.

  • Thought to control body rhythms.


Cerebellum
Cerebellum

  • Rear of the brain

  • Similar to the Cerebrum, each hemisphere controls opposite sides of the body.

  • Controls Swallowing, Breathing, Digestion, and Heartbeat


Neurons
Neurons

  • The neuron transmits electric signals like an electric wire.

  • Neurons must be linked to each other in order to transmit signals.

  • The connection between two neurons is a synapse


Your final
Your Final

  • Your Final Exam will be the following:

    • You must develop a 20 question multiple-choice quiz.

    • The quiz must include questions about the body-systems, fitness testing, indoor games that we have played, stress-management, and pool-related safety.

    • You can not discuss your questions with others around you.

    • There is absolutely no talking

    • Good Luck!


Example
EXAMPLE

  • ONE WAY TO COPE WITH STRESS IS TO .

    • A. AVOID THE STRESSOR

    • B. EAT HIGH FAT FOODS

    • C. EXERCISE ON A REGULAR BASIS.

    • D. SELF-MEDICATE






Facts
Facts

  • Adults eat about 500 kg of food per year

  • 1.5 liters of saliva is produced each day

  • The esophagus is approximately 25cm long

  • Muscles contract in waves to move the food down the esophagus.

  • In the mouth, food is either cooled or warmed to a more suitable temperature


Why so important
Why So Important

  • When you eat foods—such as bread, meat, and vegetables—they are not in a form that the body can use as nourishment.

  • Food and drink must be changed into smaller molecules of nutrients before they can be absorbed into the blood and carried to cells throughout the body.

  • Digestion is the process by which food and drink are broken down into their smallest parts so the body can use them to build and nourish cells and to provide energy.


Digestive system1
Digestive System

  • Mouth

    • The mouth is the first part of the digestive tract.

    • The inside of the mouth is lubricated with saliva that comes from the salivary glands.

    • The strongest muscles are found in each side of the mouth. They help move the lower jaw and give it a biting force.

    • There are four types of teeth in the mouth. The incisors are used in cutting food. The canines are used for grasping, piercing and tearing. The premolars and molars are used for crushing and grinding.


Digestive system2
Digestive System

  • Salivary Glands

    • Saliva from these glands lubricates the food and makes it soft.

    • Saliva also contains an enzyme that breaks down starch.

  • Esophagus

    • The esophagus is a muscular tube that can open and close at the pharynx.

    • From the mouth, food goes down the esophagus through the pharynx or throat.

    • The walls of the esophagus consist of smooth muscles and there wave like movements move the food down to the stomach.


Digestive system3
Digestive System

  • Stomach

    • The stomach is a hollow muscular organ shaped like a bag.

    • Its upper end is connected to the esophagus while the lower end is connected to the small intestine.

    • The upper and lower ends of the stomach have smooth circular muscles called sphincter muscles.

    • Upper Relaxes = Food Enters

    • Lower Relaxes = Partially digested food moves out of stomach. T


Digestive system4
Digestive System

  • Intestines

    • The intestines are found below the stomach and liver. They form the major part of the digestive tract.

    • The small intestine is about 2.5 centimeter in diameter and 6 meters long. Its wall are made of smooth muscles.

      • The work of the small intestines is to digest food, which can then be absorbed by the blood.

    • The large intestines is about 5 centimeters in diameter and about 1.8 meters long.

      • The work of the large intestine is to absorb water from the undigested food, hold the undigested food for a while and then excrete it as feces.


Digestive system5
Digestive System

  • Supporting Parts

    • The liver, pancreas and gall bladder are not parts of the alimentary canal but they have important functions in the digestive process

  • Liver

    • The liver lies under the diaphragm and near the stomach. It is the largest organ inside the body and one of the most important.

    • It produces bile, a substance that helps in the digestion of fats.

    • It stores glycogen, vitamins and some minerals, such as iron and copper, which are released when needed by the body.

  • Gall Bladder

  • Pancreas


Digestive system6
Digestive System

  • Gall Bladder

    • The gall bladder is a small muscular sac that is attached beneath the liver.

    • Bile produced by the liver passes through a small tube and is stored in the gall bladder.

    • From the gall bladder, bile is released to the small intestine to aid in digestion.

  • Pancreas

    • The pancreas is an organ that lies behind the stomach. Its function related to digestion is to produce pancreatic juice.

    • Pancreatic juice helps in neutralizing or weakening the acid in food inside the stomach before it moves onto the small intestine.



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