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Metabolic Breakdown of Individual Amino Acids PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Metabolic Breakdown of Individual Amino Acids. to Citric Acid Cycle Intermediates or their Precursors. Glucogenic Pyruvate – a -Ketoglutarate Succinyl-CoA Fumarate Oxaloacetate. Ketogenic Acetyl-CoA Acetoacetate. Products of Amino Acid Breakdown.

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Metabolic Breakdown of Individual Amino Acids

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Metabolic Breakdown of Individual Amino Acids

to

Citric Acid Cycle Intermediates

or

their Precursors


Glucogenic

Pyruvate

–a-Ketoglutarate

Succinyl-CoA

Fumarate

Oxaloacetate

Ketogenic

Acetyl-CoA

Acetoacetate

Products of Amino Acid Breakdown


Animals cannot carryout net synthesis of precursors of gluconeogenesis from acetyl-CoA or acetoacetate


Conversion of Pyruvate and Oxaloacetate to PEP(Gluconeogenesis)


Degradation to Pyruvate

Alanine, Cysteine, Glycine, Serine and Threonine


Alanine


Cysteine

(Various Routes)


Glycine, Threonine and Serine


Glycine —> Serine

Serine Hydroxymethyl Transferase


Formation of Glycine-PLP Schiff Base


Formation of Ketimine


Formation of Serine


Threonine —> Serine

Serine Hydroxymethyl Transferase

(PLP and C–C Bond Cleavage)


Formation of Threonine-PLP Schiff Base


Formation of Ketimine


Formation of Serine


Summary


N5, N10-Methylene Tetrahydrofolate


Source ofN5, N10-Methylene Tetrahydrofolate

Glycine Cleavage System

Glycine Decarboxylase Multienzyme Complex

or

Glycine Synthase (reverse direction)


Glycine Cleavage System

  • P-Protein: PLP-dependent glycine decarboxylase

  • H-Protein: lipoamide-containing protein

  • T-Protein: THF-requiring enzyme

  • L-Protein: NAD+-dependent FAD-requiring dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase


Glycine Cleavage System (Formation of Glycine-PLP Schiff Base)


Glycine Cleavage System(Decarboxylation and Transfer of 1-Carbon Unit)


Glycine Cleavage System(Formation of N5, N10-Methylene THF)


N5, N10-Methylene Tetrahydrofolate


Elimination of Water from Serine

Serine Dehydratase


Serine Dehydratase(Formation of Serine-PLP Schiff Base)


Serine Dehydratase(Formation of Aminoacrylate)


Non-Enzymatic Step(Conversion of Aminoacrylate to Pyruvate)


Summary


Degradation to Oxaloacetate

Asparagine and Aspartate


Asparagine —> Aspartate —> Oxaloacetate


Degradation to a-Ketoglutarate

Arginine, Glutamate, Glutamine, Histidine and Proline


Arginine and Proline


Histidine


N5-Formimino Tetrahydrofolate


Glutamate and Glutamine


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