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Metabolic Breakdown of Individual Amino Acids. to Citric Acid Cycle Intermediates or their Precursors. Glucogenic Pyruvate – a -Ketoglutarate Succinyl-CoA Fumarate Oxaloacetate. Ketogenic Acetyl-CoA Acetoacetate. Products of Amino Acid Breakdown.

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Metabolic breakdown of individual amino acids l.jpg

Metabolic Breakdown of Individual Amino Acids


Citric Acid Cycle Intermediates


their Precursors

Products of amino acid breakdown l.jpg



– a-Ketoglutarate







Products of Amino Acid Breakdown

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Animals cannot carryout net synthesis of precursors of gluconeogenesis from acetyl-CoA or acetoacetate

Degradation to pyruvate l.jpg

Degradation to Pyruvate

Alanine, Cysteine, Glycine, Serine and Threonine

Cysteine l.jpg


(Various Routes)

Glycine serine l.jpg

Glycine —> Serine

Serine Hydroxymethyl Transferase

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Threonine —> Serine

Serine Hydroxymethyl Transferase

(PLP and C–C Bond Cleavage)

N 5 n 10 methylene tetrahydrofolate l.jpg
N5, N10-Methylene Tetrahydrofolate

Source of n 5 n 10 methylene tetrahydrofolate l.jpg

Source ofN5, N10-Methylene Tetrahydrofolate

Glycine Cleavage System

Glycine Decarboxylase Multienzyme Complex


Glycine Synthase (reverse direction)

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Glycine Cleavage System

  • P-Protein: PLP-dependent glycine decarboxylase

  • H-Protein: lipoamide-containing protein

  • T-Protein: THF-requiring enzyme

  • L-Protein: NAD+-dependent FAD-requiring dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase

Glycine cleavage system formation of glycine plp schiff base l.jpg
Glycine Cleavage System (Formation of Glycine-PLP Schiff Base)

Glycine cleavage system decarboxylation and transfer of 1 carbon unit l.jpg
Glycine Cleavage System(Decarboxylation and Transfer of 1-Carbon Unit)

Glycine cleavage system formation of n 5 n 10 methylene thf l.jpg
Glycine Cleavage System(Formation of N5, N10-Methylene THF)

N 5 n 10 methylene tetrahydrofolate24 l.jpg
N5, N10-Methylene Tetrahydrofolate

Serine dehydratase formation of serine plp schiff base l.jpg
Serine Dehydratase(Formation of Serine-PLP Schiff Base)

Serine dehydratase formation of aminoacrylate l.jpg
Serine Dehydratase(Formation of Aminoacrylate)

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Non-Enzymatic Step(Conversion of Aminoacrylate to Pyruvate)

Degradation to oxaloacetate l.jpg

Degradation to Oxaloacetate

Asparagine and Aspartate

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Degradation to a-Ketoglutarate

Arginine, Glutamate, Glutamine, Histidine and Proline

N 5 formimino tetrahydrofolate l.jpg
N5-Formimino Tetrahydrofolate