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IMPRINT Workload Modeling: FY04 and FY05 Work. Raja Parasuraman Cognitive Science Laboratory George Mason University. Tasks—FY04. Review Existing Task Scheduling and Workload Modeling Theory and Research Evaluate Workload Management Strategies in IMPRINT

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Imprint workload modeling fy04 and fy05 work

IMPRINT Workload Modeling: FY04 and FY05 Work

Raja Parasuraman

Cognitive Science Laboratory

George Mason University


Tasks fy04
Tasks—FY04

  • Review Existing Task Scheduling and Workload Modeling Theory and Research

  • Evaluate Workload Management Strategies in IMPRINT

  • Identify and Define Proposed Modifications


Overview and scope
Overview and Scope

  • Outline theoretical foundations for enhancing IMPRINT capabilities in two areas:

    • Workload modeling

    • Workload management strategies

  • Focus on theory, not on IMPRINT tools and models


Overview and scope contd
Overview and Scope (contd.)

  • Took a “blue sky” approach--considered all possible potential enhancements based on current workload research

  • Starting points

    • Mitchell (2000) ARL Technical Report

    • Wickens (2002) TIES journal article


Descriptors
Descriptors

  • Theoretical foundation

  • Implications for IMPRINT

  • “Seat of the pants” evaluation


Potential enhancements in workload modeling
Potential Enhancements in Workload Modeling

  • Updated Implementation of Multiple Resource Theory: Focal vs. Ambient Vision

  • Cross-Modal Links in Spatial Attention

  • Time and Intensity Based Models (Hendy’s IP/PCT Model)

  • MART: Malleable Attentional Resource Theory

  • Dynamic Workload Modeling

  • Task Prioritization

  • Concurrent Task Management (CTM)

  • Latent Performance Decrements

  • Task Shifting


Example 1 cross modal links in attention
Example 1: Cross-Modal Links in Attention

  • Theoretical Foundation: Although different sensory modalities generally define different resource pools, cross-modal links are present, particularly as a function of common spatial location (Spence & Read, 2003)

  • Implications for IMPRINT: Revision of workload model, in particular the sensory modality resource type, and the resulting conflict matrix

  • Initial Evaluation: Implement, given strong background evidence for importance of cross-modal links in spatial attention


Example 2 time and intensity based models model hendy s ip pct
Example 2: Time and Intensity Based Models Model (Hendy’s IP/PCT)

  • Theoretical Foundation: Time to perform a task as a function of time available can be used to predict overall workload, whereas intensity of processing has a lesser effect

  • Implications for IMPRINT: Revision of workload model, eliminating resource demand and conflict matrix and replacing with a percentage time metric

  • Initial Evaluation: Do not implement, given that percentage time metrics cannot account for lack of interference from time consuming but minimally resource demanding tasks. Using resource demands and the conflict matrix gives a designer better, more concrete, recommendations pertinent to workstation redesign and therefore more valuable than time-based methods


Tasks fy05
Tasks—FY05

  • Re-examine the mental workload scales in IMPRINT and split the visual workload scale into ambient and focal scales

  • Benchmark values against verbal descriptors and recommend default values for the resource pair conflict matrix.


Visual workload
Visual Workload

  • Visual workload is influenced by numerous task, operator, and environmental factors

  • Current IMPRINT workload algorithm includes a number of these factors

  • However, current workload algorithm does not distinguish between focal and ambient visual workload


Focal and ambient vision
Focal and Ambient Vision

  • Focal vision: Visual tasks requiring the interpretation of detail (e.g., reading text)

  • Ambient vision: Visual tasks involving self motion and detection of moving objects (e.g., driving, walking)



Focal vision descriptors
Focal Vision Descriptors

Scale ValueVisual Scale Descriptor

0.0 No Visual Activity

1.0 Visually Register/Detect (detect occurrence of image)

3.7 Visually Discriminate (detect visual differences)

4.0 Visually Inspect/Check (discrete inspection/static condition)

4.5 Visually inspect multiple displays separated by less than 20o

5.9 Visually Read (symbol)

6.0 Visually inspect/read in low luminance conditions

6.2 Visually inspect multiple displays separated by more than 20o

7.0 Visually scan/search/monitor (continuous/serial inspection, multiple conditions)


Ambient vision descriptors
Ambient Vision Descriptors

Scale ValueVisual Scale Descriptor

0.0 No visual Activity

1.0 Visually monitor for headway maintenance at speeds below 8 mph

1.5 Visually monitor for headway maintenance at speeds above 10 mph

2.7 Visually process/regulate speed of motion

3.7 Visually monitor optic flow when field of view (FOV) is restricted to less than 90o

4.0 Visually locate/align (selective orientation)

5.4 Maintain orientation (i.e., pitch, roll, yaw) during visual tracking/following

6.0 Visually scan/search/monitor (continuous/vigilant monitoring in peripheral vision – high luminance conditions)



Additional visual workload distinctions
Additional Visual Workload Distinctions

  • Distinguish between focal-verbal, focal-spatial, ambient-verbal, and ambient-spatial processes

  • Distinguish peripersonal (reaching, grasping, and manipulating objects) and extrapersonal spae (activation of attentional, memory and voluntary motor systems).


Potential enhancements in workload modeling1
Potential Enhancements in Workload Modeling

  • Updated Implementation of Multiple Resource Theory: Focal vs. Ambient Vision

  • Cross-Modal Links in Spatial Attention

  • Time and Intensity Based Models (Hendy’s IP/PCT Model)

  • MART: Malleable Attentional Resource Theory

  • Dynamic Workload Modeling

  • Task Prioritization

  • Concurrent Task Management (CTM)

  • Latent Performance Decrements

  • Task Shifting


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