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Maine Dispute, Oregon Fever. AP U.S 1. British Hate. U.S hatred of Britain during the 19 th century came about periodically and had to be ended by a treaty or war Anti-British feelings were due to several reasons 1- Memories of two previous wars

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Maine Dispute, Oregon Fever

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Maine Dispute, Oregon Fever

AP U.S 1

British Hate

  • U.S hatred of Britain during the 19th century came about periodically and had to be ended by a treaty or war

  • Anti-British feelings were due to several reasons

  • 1- Memories of two previous wars

  • 2- pro-British federalists had died out, to those Jacksonian Democrats

  • 3- British travelers spoke poorly of American “tobacco spitting, slave auctioneering, lynching, and other unsavory features”

War of the pen

  • America at the time was a borrowing nation, Britain a lending nation

  • A provocative incident on the Canadian frontier brought passions to a boil in 1837

  • American steamer, Caroline, was attacked on the Niagara River

  • Only 1 American was killed

More tension

  • In 1841 in the Bahamas, British officials offered asylum to 130 Virginia slaves who rebelled and captured American ship the Creole

  • These several events and feelings combined to create a very tension filled century between these two countries

Manipulating the Maine Maps

  • Controversy in 1840s involved Maine boundary dispute

  • British wanted to build road from Halifax to Quebec

  • Proposed route ran through disputed territory

  • Tough lumberjacks from Maine and Canada entered disputed land and ugly fights occur

  • Titled “Aroostook War”

  • Britain sent a statesman to the U.S to negotiate and they eventually do


  • Basically, they split the difference so Americans retained about 7,000 square miles of the 12,000 total

  • British got less land but won the Halifax-Quebec route

  • Overlooked bonus in the same treaty

  • The British in adjusting the boundary farther west, surrendered 6,500 square miles which was later found to contain priceless Mesabi iron ore of Minnesota


Oregon Fever Populates Oregon

  • So called Oregon Country was an enormous wildernes

  • Went from west of the Rockies to the Pacific Ocean

  • North of California to the line of 54-40 the present southern tip of the Alaska panhandle

  • All of parts of the area were at one time claimed by four nations: Spain, Russia, Britain and the U.S

  • Two eventually drop out: Spain got rid of its share in the Florida Treaty of 1819

  • Russia retreated to 54-40 by treaties of 1824 and 25 with U.S and Britain

  • Best colonizing effect of Britain was the Hudson’s Bay Company which traded with Indians of Pacific Northwest for furs

  • U.S presence was strengthened by missionaries and other settlers

  • These missionaries were instrumental in saving Oregon for the United States

  • They stimulated interest in a faraway land that many Americans earlier assumed would not be settled for centuries


  • Scattered American and British pioneers lived peacefully side by side

  • By 1846 about 5,000 Americans had settled south of the Columbia River

  • Some of them “border ruffians” experts with bowie knifes and “revolving pistols”

  • British could only muster about 700 subjects north of Columbia River

Curious Fact

  • Only a relatively small segment of Oregon Country was actually controversial by 1845

  • Area in dispute was quad-rangle between the Columbia River on the south and east, 49th parallel on the north and the Pacific Ocean on the west

  • This becomes a big part of the election of 1844 along with several other issues such as Manifest Destiny, Texas, etc.


  • At the conclusion of the Mexican War, there were about 13,000 descendants of Spanish and Mexican conquerors who had once ruled California

  • AKA: Californios

  • Spanish first arrived in California in 1769

  • They outraced Russian traders to bountiful San Franciscan Bay

  • Father Junipero Serra established 21 missions along the coast

  • Indians were encouraged to adapt Christianity and sometimes were forced to become farmers and herders while suffering from disease, etc.

  • Oftentimes these maltreated Indians were part of the lowest rung of the Spanish society

  • Californios were high up on that “ladder”

Transfer of Power

  • They were pioneers from the Mexican heartland of New Spain, they traveled to California

  • Mexico emptied its jails and sent settlers to the barely populated north and gave power from the missions over to governmental authorities

  • This program ended the immense power of the missions

  • During the 1830s the power of the missions weakened, and much of their land was given to Californios

  • Californios glory faded when Americans won the War with Mexico

  • They were overwhelmed by a rush of white gold rushers (87,000) after Sutter’s Mill discovery in 1848

  • Starting in 1910 hundreds of thousands of young Mexicans would flock into California and the southwest

  • However the land was much different than years before when the Californio ancestors settled it

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