Cancer Immunoediting Integrating Immunity ’ s Roles in Cancer Suppression and Promotion. Omer GULLULU. T he immune system plays a dual role in cancer : Destruction Provide a host region.
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CancerImmunoeditingIntegratingImmunity’sRoles in CancerSuppressionandPromotion
The immune systemplays a dual role in cancer:
BurnetandThomas built their cancerimmunosurveillance hypothesis,a concept that formally envisaged thatadaptiveimmunity was responsible for preventingcancer development in immunocompetenthosts.
Stutmanprovided little support for thishypothesis. Ofparticular note were experimentsshowing thatthe cancersusceptibility of immunocompetentmice(toboth spontaneous and carcinogen-inducedtumors)was similar to that of nude mice thathadmajor but not total immunodeficiency
The discovery of the importance ofinterferon-gamma(IFN-γ) in promoting immunologicallyinduced rejection of transplanted tumorcells and by the demonstration that mice lackingeither IFN-γresponsiveness (gene-targetedmice lacking either the IFN-γreceptor or theSTAT1 transcription factor required for IFN receptorsignaling) or adaptive immunity [RAG2−/−mice lackingT cells, B cells, and natural killerT (NKT)cells]weremore susceptible tocarcinogeninducedand spontaneous primary tumor formation.
In the case of human cancer, identification oftumor antigens required the development ofnovel in vitro detection and cloning methodsthat used as probes antibodies and cytolyticTlymphocytes (CD8 T cells) derived fromcancer patients that were specific for theautologous tumor.
Notonly tumor quantity but also tumor quality
The notion that the immune system not only protects the host against tumor formation but also shapes tumor immunogenicity is the basis of the cancer immunoediting hypothesis, which stresses the dual host-protective and tumor-promoting actions of immunity on developing tumors.
Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are two major types of immunosuppressive leukocyte populations that play key roles in inhibiting host-protective antitumor responses.
Genotoxicstress – (Cancerpromotion)
Control components of immunity
MyD88 and IL-1β
Regulators of G-Protein Signaling (RGS)
IntraOcularPressure-InducedIschemia (IOP Ischemia)
CD4+ T cells
CD8+ T cells