Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006
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Getting All Girls Into School: Overcoming Exclusion Marlaine Lockheed Center for Global Development. UNDP-Fordham University Panel Women’s Access to Education January 30, 2007 Fordham University Lincoln Center Campus. Gender Parity in Primary Enrollments Rose Between 1960 and 2000.

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Getting all girls into school overcoming exclusion marlaine lockheed center for global development

Getting All Girls Into School: Overcoming ExclusionMarlaine LockheedCenter for Global Development

UNDP-Fordham University Panel

Women’s Access to Education

January 30, 2007

Fordham University Lincoln Center Campus



60 million primary school age girls are out of school
60 Million Primary School Age Girls are Out of School 2000

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006



Socially excluded groups are marginalized by
Socially Excluded Groups are Marginalized by: 2000

  • Stigmatization

  • Ethnic differences

  • Low status

  • “Involuntary” minority status

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Elasticities for heterogeneity
Elasticities for Heterogeneity 2000

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


School enrollment attainment completion for excluded girls
School Enrollment, Attainment, Completion for Excluded Girls 2000

  • Nigeria – 35% lower probability

  • India – 11 percentage points lower

  • Laos – 6 years fewer

  • Pakistan – 30-55 percentage points lower

  • Guatemala – 40 percentage points lower

  • Slovak Republic – 45 percentage points lower

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Quechua girls outperform quechua boys in 5 th grade peru 2000
Quechua Girls Outperform Quechua Boys in 5 2000th Grade, Peru 2000

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Indigenous girls outperform indigenous boys in ecuador
Indigenous Girls Outperform Indigenous Boys in Ecuador 2000

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


First improve and diversify the supply of education
First, Improve and Diversify the Supply of Education 2000

  • Altering education policies and addressing discrimination

  • Expanding schooling options

  • Improving the quality and relevance of schools and classrooms

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Second create incentives for households to send girls to school
Second, Create Incentives for Households to Send Girls to School

  • Conditional cash transfers

  • Scholarships and stipends

  • School feeding programs

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Practical actions to promote education for excluded girls
Practical Actions to Promote Education for Excluded Girls School

  • The Unesco Institute for Statistics should report school participation and achievement data disaggregated by gender and exclusion

  • Bilateral, multilateral and private donors should target their support to programs that have demonstrated positive effects for excluded girls

  • Girls’ Education Evaluation Fund

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Unanswered questions
Unanswered Questions School

  • Exactly how large is the problem?

  • Under what conditions are various program effective?

  • What would it cost to implement these programs?

  • How can countries overcome historical inequities and exclusion?

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


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