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UNDP-Fordham University Panel Women’s Access to Education January 30, 2007

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Getting All Girls Into School: Overcoming Exclusion Marlaine Lockheed Center for Global Development. UNDP-Fordham University Panel Women’s Access to Education January 30, 2007 Fordham University Lincoln Center Campus. Gender Parity in Primary Enrollments Rose Between 1960 and 2000.

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getting all girls into school overcoming exclusion marlaine lockheed center for global development

Getting All Girls Into School: Overcoming ExclusionMarlaine LockheedCenter for Global Development

UNDP-Fordham University Panel

Women’s Access to Education

January 30, 2007

Fordham University Lincoln Center Campus

socially excluded groups are marginalized by
Socially Excluded Groups are Marginalized by:
  • Stigmatization
  • Ethnic differences
  • Low status
  • “Involuntary” minority status

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

elasticities for heterogeneity
Elasticities for Heterogeneity

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

school enrollment attainment completion for excluded girls
School Enrollment, Attainment, Completion for Excluded Girls
  • Nigeria – 35% lower probability
  • India – 11 percentage points lower
  • Laos – 6 years fewer
  • Pakistan – 30-55 percentage points lower
  • Guatemala – 40 percentage points lower
  • Slovak Republic – 45 percentage points lower

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

first improve and diversify the supply of education
First, Improve and Diversify the Supply of Education
  • Altering education policies and addressing discrimination
  • Expanding schooling options
  • Improving the quality and relevance of schools and classrooms

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

second create incentives for households to send girls to school
Second, Create Incentives for Households to Send Girls to School
  • Conditional cash transfers
  • Scholarships and stipends
  • School feeding programs

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

practical actions to promote education for excluded girls
Practical Actions to Promote Education for Excluded Girls
  • The Unesco Institute for Statistics should report school participation and achievement data disaggregated by gender and exclusion
  • Bilateral, multilateral and private donors should target their support to programs that have demonstrated positive effects for excluded girls
  • Girls’ Education Evaluation Fund

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

unanswered questions
Unanswered Questions
  • Exactly how large is the problem?
  • Under what conditions are various program effective?
  • What would it cost to implement these programs?
  • How can countries overcome historical inequities and exclusion?

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006

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