Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006
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Getting All Girls Into School: Overcoming Exclusion Marlaine Lockheed Center for Global Development. UNDP-Fordham University Panel Women’s Access to Education January 30, 2007 Fordham University Lincoln Center Campus. Gender Parity in Primary Enrollments Rose Between 1960 and 2000.

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UNDP-Fordham University Panel Women’s Access to Education January 30, 2007

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Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Getting All Girls Into School: Overcoming ExclusionMarlaine LockheedCenter for Global Development

UNDP-Fordham University Panel

Women’s Access to Education

January 30, 2007

Fordham University Lincoln Center Campus


Gender Parity in Primary Enrollments Rose Between 1960 and 2000

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


60 Million Primary School Age Girls are Out of School

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


70 Percent of Out of School Girls are from Excluded Groups

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Socially Excluded Groups are Marginalized by:

  • Stigmatization

  • Ethnic differences

  • Low status

  • “Involuntary” minority status

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Elasticities for Heterogeneity

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


School Enrollment, Attainment, Completion for Excluded Girls

  • Nigeria – 35% lower probability

  • India – 11 percentage points lower

  • Laos – 6 years fewer

  • Pakistan – 30-55 percentage points lower

  • Guatemala – 40 percentage points lower

  • Slovak Republic – 45 percentage points lower

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Quechua Girls Outperform Quechua Boys in 5th Grade, Peru 2000

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Indigenous Girls Outperform Indigenous Boys in Ecuador

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


First, Improve and Diversify the Supply of Education

  • Altering education policies and addressing discrimination

  • Expanding schooling options

  • Improving the quality and relevance of schools and classrooms

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Second, Create Incentives for Households to Send Girls to School

  • Conditional cash transfers

  • Scholarships and stipends

  • School feeding programs

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Practical Actions to Promote Education for Excluded Girls

  • The Unesco Institute for Statistics should report school participation and achievement data disaggregated by gender and exclusion

  • Bilateral, multilateral and private donors should target their support to programs that have demonstrated positive effects for excluded girls

  • Girls’ Education Evaluation Fund

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Unanswered Questions

  • Exactly how large is the problem?

  • Under what conditions are various program effective?

  • What would it cost to implement these programs?

  • How can countries overcome historical inequities and exclusion?

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


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