Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006
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UNDP-Fordham University Panel Women’s Access to Education January 30, 2007 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Getting All Girls Into School: Overcoming Exclusion Marlaine Lockheed Center for Global Development. UNDP-Fordham University Panel Women’s Access to Education January 30, 2007 Fordham University Lincoln Center Campus. Gender Parity in Primary Enrollments Rose Between 1960 and 2000.

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UNDP-Fordham University Panel Women’s Access to Education January 30, 2007

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Undp fordham university panel women s access to education january 30 2007

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Getting all girls into school overcoming exclusion marlaine lockheed center for global development

Getting All Girls Into School: Overcoming ExclusionMarlaine LockheedCenter for Global Development

UNDP-Fordham University Panel

Women’s Access to Education

January 30, 2007

Fordham University Lincoln Center Campus


Gender parity in primary enrollments rose between 1960 and 2000

Gender Parity in Primary Enrollments Rose Between 1960 and 2000

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


60 million primary school age girls are out of school

60 Million Primary School Age Girls are Out of School

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


70 percent of out of school girls are from excluded groups

70 Percent of Out of School Girls are from Excluded Groups

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Socially excluded groups are marginalized by

Socially Excluded Groups are Marginalized by:

  • Stigmatization

  • Ethnic differences

  • Low status

  • “Involuntary” minority status

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Elasticities for heterogeneity

Elasticities for Heterogeneity

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


School enrollment attainment completion for excluded girls

School Enrollment, Attainment, Completion for Excluded Girls

  • Nigeria – 35% lower probability

  • India – 11 percentage points lower

  • Laos – 6 years fewer

  • Pakistan – 30-55 percentage points lower

  • Guatemala – 40 percentage points lower

  • Slovak Republic – 45 percentage points lower

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Quechua girls outperform quechua boys in 5 th grade peru 2000

Quechua Girls Outperform Quechua Boys in 5th Grade, Peru 2000

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Indigenous girls outperform indigenous boys in ecuador

Indigenous Girls Outperform Indigenous Boys in Ecuador

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


First improve and diversify the supply of education

First, Improve and Diversify the Supply of Education

  • Altering education policies and addressing discrimination

  • Expanding schooling options

  • Improving the quality and relevance of schools and classrooms

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Second create incentives for households to send girls to school

Second, Create Incentives for Households to Send Girls to School

  • Conditional cash transfers

  • Scholarships and stipends

  • School feeding programs

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Practical actions to promote education for excluded girls

Practical Actions to Promote Education for Excluded Girls

  • The Unesco Institute for Statistics should report school participation and achievement data disaggregated by gender and exclusion

  • Bilateral, multilateral and private donors should target their support to programs that have demonstrated positive effects for excluded girls

  • Girls’ Education Evaluation Fund

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


Unanswered questions

Unanswered Questions

  • Exactly how large is the problem?

  • Under what conditions are various program effective?

  • What would it cost to implement these programs?

  • How can countries overcome historical inequities and exclusion?

Source: Lewis and Lockheed 2006


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