Two most influential ideologies to reject classical liberalism
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Two Most Influential Ideologies To REJECT Classical Liberalism. COMMUNISM FASCISM. Both communism and fascism used totalitarian governments. Totalitarianism – use of government to exert complete control over EVERY aspect of people’s lives. On the USSR’s flag hammer = industrialization

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Two Most Influential Ideologies To REJECT Classical Liberalism

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Two most influential ideologies to reject classical liberalism

Two Most Influential Ideologies To REJECT Classical Liberalism

  • COMMUNISM

  • FASCISM


Both communism and fascism used totalitarian governments

Both communism and fascism used totalitarian governments

  • Totalitarianism – use of government to exert complete control over EVERY aspect of people’s lives

On the USSR’s flag

hammer = industrialization

scythe = collectivized agriculture

On the Nazi’s flag

Swastika – ancient symbol denoting luck

Since Hitler, to most Westerners it denotes evil


Commonalities

Commonalities

New technologies made totalitarianism possible and allowed rulers to maintain an extreme degree of control over their populations

Turned away from the individual and away from limited democratic governments

Both had one party rule (no other political parties allowed)

Both favored a collective, all-powerful state


Both used a hierarchical structure

Both used a hierarchical structure

Single charismatic party leader

Obedience to and support for the party was not-negotiable

Top party members (national)

Lower party members (regional & local)

Masses of people in the nation


Totalitarianism cartoon

Totalitarianism Cartoon


Control of the masses

Control of the Masses

FEAR

TERROR

INTIMIDATION

INDOCTRINATION

GESTAPO

PROPAGANDA

NKVD

COERCIVE POWER


Two most influential ideologies to reject classical liberalism

The NVKD

was among the most brutal, repressive, and inhumane police organisations of human history.

The NKVD's duties, while multifaceted, included the administration of the gulag's and prison system, the police, internal affairs for the police, and served as the main apparatus for carrying out the purges and mass executions of Communists and innocent Soviet civilians in the 1930s.


Two most influential ideologies to reject classical liberalism

GULAGS – SOVIET FORCED LABOUR PRISONS


Two most influential ideologies to reject classical liberalism

During the NKVD's reign of terror (1930-1953),786,098 Soviet people were executed, 3.5 million were imprisoned, and 2 million people died in prison and exile.

The vast majority of executions — 681,692, or87% of the total — came in 1937 and 1938, corresponding to the years the Soviet Government required the NKVD to fulfill a predetermined quota of arrests and executions.

This quota indicated that each city in the country held several thousand "traitors" that must be found and executed. (Data from: The Road to Terror, Getty and Naumov, Yale University Press, 1999. Pages 587-594.)


Two most influential ideologies to reject classical liberalism

NKVD EXECUTIONS


Two most influential ideologies to reject classical liberalism

At its height in January 1, 1941, the NKVD held 1,500,524 Soviet people in prisons and gulags.

Death rates while incarcerated (due to hunger, exhaustion, disease, and natural causes) varied from 5-10% of all new arrivals.

The vast majority of those in prison were men (~ 93% from 1934 - 1941), with 50-70% (depending on the year in question) between the ages of 25 and 40.

Those with a primary education or who were semi-literate were the most likely in prison, steadily representing around 80% of the total. (Data from: The History of the Gulag, Khlevniuk, Yale University Press, 2004, pages 307-319).


Two most influential ideologies to reject classical liberalism

786,098 Soviet people were executed


Two most influential ideologies to reject classical liberalism

Joseph Stalin

Nicknames:

Man of Steel

Ruler with an Iron Fist

Koba

One of Koba’s most famous quotes lives on in infamy:

“Death solves all problems - no man, no problem.”


Two most influential ideologies to reject classical liberalism

Koba, it is conservatively estimated, had some 20 million problems, all of which he solved via collectivization, dekulakization, the famines, the Great Terror, the purges, the Gulag Archipelago, Vorkuta, Kolyma, Solovetsky, Suhanovka - on and on it went, decade after decade after decade.

Twenty million senseless killings. Twenty million ‘problems’ solved. Over a quarter of a century of relentless, grinding evil.


Metaphor for indoctrination

Metaphor for Indoctrination

THINK AS YOU ARE TOLD – YOUR ARE PART OF THE COLLECTIVE


Soviet propaganda

Soviet Propaganda

One sided information designed to persuade its audience


Two most influential ideologies to reject classical liberalism

Fuehrer

The Leader of the

NAZI Party

Nationalist

Socialist German

Worker’s Party

ADOLF HITLER


Two most influential ideologies to reject classical liberalism

(Geheime Staatspolizei; Secret State Police), a police force, often including members of the SS, were responsible for state security and the consignment of people to concentration camps.

The Gestapo's main tool was the protective custody procedure which allowed it to take actions against "enemies of the Reich."

By 1934, Heinrich Himmler became head of the Gestapo throughout Germany. In 1939 the Gestapo was consolidated with other police forces to form the RSHA (Reich Security Main Office).

The RSHA, including the Gestapo and the SS, assumed the task of enslaving the "inferior races" and carried out a major role in the "Final Solution".


Hitler s final solution

Hitler’s Final Solution

A

U

S

C

H

W

I

T

Z

Death Camps

To kill Jews, Gypsies, Religious Leaders and other Dissenters, Homosexuals, Disabled People, and all non-whites


Two most influential ideologies to reject classical liberalism

Those who will NEVER FORGET

Millions killed


Indoctrination cartoon

Indoctrination Cartoon

INDOCTRINATION

IS

BRAINWASHING &

THOUGHT CONTROL


Nazi propaganda

Nazi Propaganda

One sided information designed to persuade an audience


Both the communist party and the nazi party demanded

Both the Communist Party and the Nazi Party demanded:

  • Support for the party (local, regional and national level)

  • Controlled participation (forced into or excluded from youth, professional, cultural or athletic groups)

  • Absolute loyalty to the leader and state ideology (secret police, terror, indoctrination via education and censorship of media used to achieve this)


Two most influential ideologies to reject classical liberalism

Demonstration of support for the party, controlled participation and absolute loyalty


Two most influential ideologies to reject classical liberalism

Loyalty Through Fear

“The ends justify the means.”


Fascism vs communism

FASCISM VS. COMMUNISM

FASCISM

  • Draws support from lower classes & business.

  • Makes decisions in the interest of the state.

  • Focuses activities on the state.(national)

  • Corporate state (private enterprise)

  • Elitism

  • Ultra-nationalism(ethnocentric)

  • racist

COMMUNISM

  • Draws support from working classes.

  • Makes decisions in the interest of the working class.

  • Desire to help working class around the world. (international)

  • State ownership of the means of production.

  • Nationalities unimportant (equally)


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