R tt till diplomatiskt skydd
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Rätt till diplomatiskt skydd?. ILC:s arbete . FN:s folkrättskommission (ILC); bas i FN-stadgan artikel 13(1)(a) (’ encouraging the progressive development of international law and its codification ’) Är ADP huvudsakligen Kodifiering eller progressiv utveckling? .

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Rätt till diplomatiskt skydd?

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R tt till diplomatiskt skydd

Rätt till diplomatiskt skydd?


Ilc s arbete

ILC:s arbete

  • FN:s folkrättskommission (ILC); bas i FN-stadgan artikel 13(1)(a) (’encouraging the progressive development of international law and itscodification’)

  • Är ADP huvudsakligen Kodifiering eller progressiv utveckling?


N r f r en stat ut va diplomatiskt skydd

När får en stat utöva diplomatiskt skydd?

  • (1) ”an international wrongful act, attributable to the injuring State” (Art. 1, ADP);

  • (2) ”may only be exercised by the State whose nationality the harmed individual possesses” (Art. 3, ADP);

  • (3) ”the harmed individual must exhaust all local remedies” (Art. 14, ADP).


An international wrongful act attributable to the injuring state art 1 adp

”an international wrongfulact, attributable to the injuring State” (Art. 1, ADP)

  • ADP handlar enbart om sekundära regler (jfr statsansvaret)

  • Relevanta normer för sökas på annat håll (MR-konventioner, sedvanerätt om egendomsskydd, m.m.)


May only be exercised by the state whose nationality the harmed individual possesses art 3 adp

”mayonly be exercised by the State whosenationality the harmedindividualpossesses” (Art. 3, ADP)

  • ADP gör skillnad på fysiska och juridiska personer

  • Fysiska (Nottebohm)

  • Juridiska (Barcelona Traction)


The harmed individual must exhaust all local remedies art 14 adp

”the harmedindividual must exhaust all localremedies” (Art. 14, ADP)

  • Kan vara svårt att dra gränsen mot statsansvar (USA v Iran Hostagescase, Avena).


R tt eller skyldighet att ut va diplomatiskt skydd

Rätt eller skyldighet att utöva diplomatiskt skydd?

  • Traditionellt har staten rätt att skydda sina medborgare, men ingen skyldighet att göra det (Barcelona Traction)

  • Staten utövar diplomatiskt skydd efter eget godtycke (Barcelona Traction)

  • Kan diplomatiskt skydd betraktas som en mänsklig rättighet?


Hur ska vi se p relationen mellan diplomatiskt skydd och m nskliga r ttigheter

Hur ska vi se på relationen mellan diplomatiskt skydd och mänskliga rättigheter?

  • Den internationella minimistandarden

  • Uttömmande av inhemska rättsmedel (ömsesidig påverkan mellan DP och MR?)

  • DP obsolet?


Tv huvudpunkter

Två huvudpunkter

  • DP bygger på en fiktion

  • Vems är rätten?


Mavrommatis palestine concessions

MavrommatisPalestineConcessions

  • ’By taking up the case of one of itssubjects and by resorting to diplomatic action or international judicialproceedings on his behalf, a State is in realityassertingitsown rights – its right to ensure, in the person of itssubjects, respect for the rules of international law. The question, therefore, whether the present disputeoriginates in an injury to a private interest, which in point of fact is the case in many international disputes, is irrelevant from this standpoint. Once a State has taken up a case on behalf of itsownsubjectsbefore an international tribunal, in the eyes of the latter the State is soleclaimant.”


Artikel 1 adp

Artikel 1, ADP

  • ’. . , diplomaticprotectionconsists of the invocation by a State, throughdiplomatic action or othermeans of peaceful settlement, of the responsibility of another State for an injurycaused by an internationallywrongfulact of that State to a natural or legal person that is a national of the former State with a view to the implementation of suchresponsibility’


Adp kommentaren

ADP, Kommentaren

  • ’[m]any of the principlescontained in the articles on Responsibility of States . . . Are relevant to diplomaticprotection and are therefore not repeated in the present draft articles [ADP]. This applies in particular to the provisions dealing with the legal consequences of an internationallywrongfulact . . . All these matters are dealt with in the articles on Responsibility of States.’


Art 44 arsiwa

Art. 44, ARSIWA

  • Utvecklas i ADP


F rpliktelser erga omnes

Förpliktelser ergaomnes

  • ’When a State admitsintoitsterritoryforeigninvestments or foreign nationals, whethernatural or juristic persons, it is bound to extend to them the protection of the law and assumes obligations concerning the treatmentafforded to them. These obligations, however, are neither absolute nor unqualified. In particular, an essentialdistinctionshould be drawnbetween the obligations of a State towards the international community as a whole, and thosearisingvis-à-visanother State in the field of diplomaticprotection. By theirverynature the former are the concern of all States. In view of the importance of the rights involved, all States can be held to have a legal interest in theirprotection; they are obligations ergaomnes (para. 33)


Art 48 arsiwa

Art. 48, ARSIWA

  • ’Any State otherthan the injuredStateisentiled to invoke the responsibility of another State …’

  • Skapar en möjlighet till Actiopopularis?


Drc v uganda 2005

DRC v Uganda (2005)

  • Simma (diss)


Mixed claims

’mixed claims’

  • Klassificering; kan kränkningar av individuella rättigheter ses som direkta skador på staten (vars nationalitet individen har)?

  • Det är inte klart vad som är en indirekt skada (på staten) och en skada genom medborgare (ICJ antyder i Avena att det finns en skillnad, para. 35-36)


Avena

Avena

  • Mexico…

  • ’may, in submitting a claim in itsownname, request the Court to rule on the violation of rights which it claims to havesufferedbothdirectly and through the violation of individual rights conferred on Mexican nationals…’

  • Alltså inte nödvändigt för Mexico att uttömma inhemska rättsmedel


Tre metoder

Tre metoder

  • Sinequa non test; skulle anspråket framställts om det inte vore för skadan på individen?

  • ’preponderance’ test; vilket element väger tyngst

  • Remediernas karaktär; vad begär den skadade staten?


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