Epicurus
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Epicurus. 341-270 BCE. Hedonism. Hedonism. Pleasure is ultimate good. Hedonism. Pleasure is ultimate good Pleasure = Happiness. Hedonism. Pleasure is ultimate good Pleasure = Happiness Mental v. Physical Pleasure. Hedonism. Pleasure is ultimate good Pleasure = Happiness

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Epicurus

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Epicurus

Epicurus

341-270 BCE


Hedonism

Hedonism


Hedonism1

Hedonism

  • Pleasure is ultimate good


Hedonism2

Hedonism

  • Pleasure is ultimate good

  • Pleasure = Happiness


Hedonism3

Hedonism

  • Pleasure is ultimate good

  • Pleasure = Happiness

  • Mental v. Physical Pleasure


Hedonism4

Hedonism

  • Pleasure is ultimate good

  • Pleasure = Happiness

  • Mental v. Physical Pleasure


Epicurus

  • “We must then meditate on the things that make our happiness, seeing that when that is with us we have all, but when it is absent we do all to win it.”


Epicurus

  • “We must then meditate on the things that make our happiness, seeing that when that is with us we have all, but when it is absent we do all to win it.”

  • Worry: What we value vs. what we should value


Epicurus

  • “We must then meditate on the things that make our happiness, seeing that when that is with us we have all, but when it is absent we do all to win it.”

  • What we value vs. what we should value

    • “Is” vs “ought”


Epicurus

  • “We must then meditate on the things that make our happiness, seeing that when that is with us we have all, but when it is absent we do all to win it.”

  • What we value v. what we should value

    • “Is” v. “ought”

    • Description v. Prescription


Epicurus

  • “For all good and evil consists in sensation…”


Epicurus

  • “For all good and evil consists in sensation…”

  • “The right understanding of these facts enables us to refer all choice and avoidance to the health of the body and the soul’s freedom from disturbance, since this is the aim of the life of blessedness. For it is to obtain this end that we always act, namely, to avoid pain and fear.”


Mental v physical

Mental v. Physical


Mental v physical1

Mental v. Physical

  • “We must consider that of desires some are natural and others vain…”


Mental v physical2

Mental v. Physical

  • “We must consider that of desires some are natural and others vain…”

  • “Not every pleasure is to be chosen.”


Mental v physical3

Mental v. Physical

  • “We must consider that of desires some are natural and others vain…”

  • “Not every pleasure is to be chosen.”

  • How do we decide?


Mental v physical4

Mental v. Physical

  • “We must consider that of desires some are natural and others vain…”

  • “Not every pleasure is to be chosen.”

  • How do we decide?

  • “Plain savours bring us a pleasure equal to a luxurious diet, when all the pain due to want is removed; and bread and water produce the highest pleasure, when one who needs them puts them to his lips.”


Mental v physical5

Mental v. Physical

  • Remove un-necessary physical desires


Mental v physical6

Mental v. Physical

  • Remove un-necessary physical desires

  • Choose mental pleasure over physical pleasure


Mental v physical7

Mental v. Physical

  • Remove un-necessary physical desires

  • Choose mental pleasure over physical pleasure

  • “When we maintain that pleasure is the end, we do not mean the pleasures of profligates and those that consists in sensuality, as is supposed by some who are either ignorant or disagree with us or do not understand, but freedom from pain in the body and trouble in the mind.” [contd


Mental v physical8

Mental v. Physical

  • “For it is not continuous drinking and revellings, nor the satisfaction of lusts, nor the enjoyment of fish and other luxuries of the wealthy table, which produce a pleasant life, but sober reasoning, searching out the motives for all choice and avoidance, and banishing mere opinions, to who are due the greatest disturbances of spirit.”


Mental v physical9

Mental v. Physical

  • What is “mental pleasure”?


Mental v physical10

Mental v. Physical

  • What is “mental pleasure”?

    • Freedom from disturbance


Mental v physical11

Mental v. Physical

  • What is “mental pleasure”?

    • Freedom from disturbance

      • Politics, death, idle speculation


Mental v physical12

Mental v. Physical

  • What is “mental pleasure”?

    • Freedom from disturbance

      • Politics, death, idle speculation

    • Friendship


Mental v physical13

Mental v. Physical

  • What is “mental pleasure”?

    • Freedom from disturbance

      • Politics, death, idle speculation

    • Friendship

    • Moderation


Mental v physical14

Mental v. Physical

  • What is “mental pleasure”?

    • Freedom from disturbance

      • Politics, death, idle speculation

    • Friendship

    • Moderation

    • Justice


Epicurus

  • “Prudence is a more precious thing than even philosophy: for from prudence are sprung all the other virtues, and it teachers us that it is not possible to live pleasantly without living prudently…”


Epicurus

  • How would you describe the ideal life according to Epicurus?


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