Virtualization and cloud computing
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Virtualization and Cloud Computing. Virtualization, Cloud and Security Michael Grafnetter. Agenda. Virtualization Security Risks and Solutions Cloud Computing Security Identity Management. Virtualization and Cloud Computing. Virtualization Security Risks and Solutions. Blue Pill Attack.

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Virtualization and Cloud Computing

Virtualization, Cloud and Security

Michael Grafnetter


Agenda

  • Virtualization Security Risks and Solutions

  • Cloud Computing Security

  • Identity Management


Virtualization and Cloud Computing

Virtualization SecurityRisks and Solutions


Blue Pill Attack


Blue Pill Attack

  • Presented in 2006 by Joanna Rutkowska at Black Hat conference

  • Traps running OS by starting a hypervisor and virtualizing the underlaying machine (needs right to run privileged instructions to achieve this)

  • Could intercept nearly anything and send fake responses (hardware interrupts, requests for data, system time etc.)


Red Pill

  • Blue Pill is detectable by timing attack

    • Trap-and-Emulate takes much longer than native instructions

    • External time sources (NTP) need to be used, because system time could be spoofed


VMM Vulnerability

  • By attacking a VMM, one could attack multiple servers at once


Datacenter Management SW

  • Virtualization infrastructure management software (VMware vCenter, Microsoft SC VMM) is used to control multiple hostsat once


Web Access to DCs

  • Multiple datacenters can be managed from a central console. Therefore, its security has to be hardened.


One Ring to rule them all…

  • Management commands available using PowerShell or Web APIs

    • Get-VM –Name * | Stop-VM

    • Get-VM –Name * | Remove-VM

    • Copy-VMGuestFile

    • Invoke-VMScript–Type Bash


Demo

DoS attack on virtualization infrastructure


Disabling Host-VM Communication


Physical vs. Virtual Firewall

  • With virtualization, servers from different Trust Zones usually share the same physical resources (memory, network card, etc.)


Traffic isolation


Demo

Configuring traffic isolationon VmwareESXi


Other risks of virtualization

  • Introduction of yet another OS

  • Reliance on traditional barriers

  • Accelerated provisioning

  • Security left to non-traditional security staff

  • Audit scope creep


Security Solutions

  • Virtual Firewall

    • Live migration

    • Stretched clusters

  • Agentless Antivirus

  • Extensible Switches

  • Mobile Virtualization Platform

  • Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI)


Agentless AV


Extensible Switch


Mobile Virtualization Platform


Mobile Virtualization Platform


Mobile Virtualization Platform

  • Supported devices


Virtual Desktop Infrastructure


Virtualization and Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing Security Risks


Who has access to our data?


Physical Security


Hard Disk Crushers


Other Cloud Risks

  • Unclear data location

  • Regulatory compliance

  • Data segregation

  • Lack of investigative support

  • Disaster recovery

  • Long-term viability, vendor lock-in


Virtualization and Cloud Computing

Identity Management


Identity Management

  • Basic Concepts

    • External user DBs

    • Two-factor authentication

    • Role-Based Access Control (RBAC)

  • Identity Federation

    • OAuth

    • OpenID

    • SAML

    • RADIUS Proxy

    • Identity Bridges


External User DBs

  • Typically Active Directory or generic LDAP is used as central identity store for virtualization infrastructures


Azure Active Directory


Two-Factor Authentication


Role-Based Access Control


Identity Federation


OAuth

  • Used to delegate user authorizationto a 3rd-party service provider


Demo

Creating a web applicationwith Facebook/Twitter/Microsoft Account authentication


OpenID


OpenID

http://someopenid.provider.com/john.smith


SAML

  • Similar to OpenID, but targeted to the enterprise

  • Security Assertion Markup Language

  • XML-based

  • Supports Single sign-on

  • Requires mutual trust between IdP and SP

  • Multiple bindings, not just HTTP

  • Supports Identity provider initiated authentication


SAML


SAML (Google Apps)


SAML Example

<saml:Assertion

ID="b07b804c-7c29-ea16-7300-4f3d6f7928ac“ Version="2.0"

IssueInstant="2004-12-05T09:22:05">

<saml:Issuer>https://idp.example.org/SAML2</saml:Issuer>

<ds:Signature>...</ds:Signature>

<saml:Conditions

NotBefore="2004-12-05T09:17:05" NotOnOrAfter="2004-12-05T09:27:05">

</saml:Conditions>

<saml:AttributeStatement>

<saml:Attributex500:Encoding="LDAP" Name="urn:oid:1.3.6.1.4.1.5923.1.1.1.1" FriendlyName="eduPersonAffiliation">

<saml:AttributeValuexsi:type="xs:string">member</saml:AttributeValue>

<saml:AttributeValuexsi:type="xs:string">staff</saml:AttributeValue>

</saml:Attribute>

</saml:AttributeStatement>

</saml:Assertion>


Microsoft Active Directory Federation Services

  • SAML-based

  • Typically used to give access to intranet portals to business partners


Shibboleth

  • SAML-based federation portal

  • Open Source


Demo

Signing in to a federatedweb application


RADIUS Proxy (Eduroam)


Identity Bridges


Identity Bridges:Azure Access Control Service


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