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Chapter 8-9 Intro to Animals. Image from: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/index.html. Zoology. Definition: the scientific study of the behavior, structure, physiology, classification, and distribution of animals. Biological Classification.

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Chapter 8 9 intro to animals
Chapter 8-9Intro to Animals

Image from: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/index.html


Zoology
Zoology

Definition:the scientific study of the behavior, structure, physiology, classification, and distribution of animals


Biological classification
Biological Classification

  • The science of classifying living things is called taxonomy.

  • Charles Linneausdeveloped the system of classifying organisms by assigning them a genus and species name.


Biological classification1
Biological Classification

  • All living things are classified in the following taxa (groups):

    Kingdom

    Phylum

    Class

    Order

    Family

    Genus

    Species


Biological classification2
Biological Classification

  • There are six kingdoms, but Zoology is based upon only Kingdom Animalia.

  • Kingdom Animalia is divided into 9 major Phyla (Phylum—singular).

  • Each Phylum is then divided into Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.


Animals
Animals

Invertebrates

(animals without a backbone)

PoriferaCnidaria

Worms

Mollusks

EchinodermsArthropods


Animals1
Animals

Vertebrates-

Animals

with backbones

FishAmphibians

Reptiles

BirdsMammals


Animal groups
Animal Groups

Image from: http://ology.amnh.org/biodiversity/treeoflife/pages/graph.html


Characteristics of all animals
Characteristics of ALL Animals:

EUKARYOTES

  • Are ____________________

    cells have nucleus & membrane bound organelles

    2. Are ____________________

    get food from consuming other organisms

    3. Are ____________________

    made of many cells

    4. Show __________________

    different kinds of cells do different jobs

HETEROTROPHIC

MULTICELLULAR

SPECIALIZATION


Characteristics of all animals1
Characteristics of ALL Animals:

MOVE

5. _____________ (at some point in life cycle)

for food, find mates, escape danger

  • Contain _____________

    which carries the genetic code

    7. ____________________

    Make offspring

    Most have sexual reproduction (few asexual)

DNA

REPRODUCE


Advantages of being multicellular
Advantages of Being Multicellular

  • The organism can be larger

  • Cell differentiation—different cells perform different functions so bodies can be more efficient

  • The organism can be more complex—better movement, higher functioning


10 body systems
10 Body Systems :

INTEGUMENTARY

1. _____________________

OUTSIDE BODY COVERING (fur, skin, scales, feathers)

Covers and protects, ID,prevents heat & water loss

Orangutan image from: http://www.biologycorner.com/webquests.php

Fish image from:http://www.woodburning.com/fish/

Frog image from: http://gladstone.uoregon.edu/~mmorley/rainbow/green%20frog.jpg

Cardinal image from: http://www.nps.gov/fopu/pulaskione/GRAPHIC/IMAGES/birds/Northern%20Cardinal.jpg


10 body systems1
10 Body Systems :

DIGESTIVE

2. _________________

Breaks down food to

obtain nutrients & gets rid of undigested waste

Image from: http://infozone.imcpl.org/kids_diges.htm


NO OPENINGS:Food enters through skin


Images from: http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif

Only one opening: FOOD IN and WASTE OUT through same opening


Image from: http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif

Two openings:

FOOD IN at one end (mouth) WASTE OUT at other end (ANUS)


Image from: http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif

Two openings: Most efficient

If food flows only one direction it allows for organ specialization

(Different parts can start to do different jobs)


10 body systems2
10 Body Systems http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif:

CIRCULATORY

3. __________________

Transports nutrients/oxygen to body cells

Carries carbon dioxide/nitrogen waste away from cells

Circulatory fluid can be:

inside blood vessels = _________ loose inside body spaces = _______

CLOSED

OPEN

Image from: http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_19/147a.gif


10 body systems3
10 Body Systems http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif:

RESPIRATORY

  • Exchange gases with the

  • environment

    • take in oxygen

    • get rid of waste gases (CO2 &/or ammonia)

4. ___________________

Image from: http://www.umm.edu/respiratory/images/respiratory_anatomy.gif


10 body systems4
10 Body Systems http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif:

5. ___________________

  • Get rid of nitrogen waste made by cells

  • Help with HOMEOSTASIS by maintaining water/ion balance

    (_________________________)

EXCRETORY

OSMOREGULATION


Nitrogen waste
NITROGEN WASTE http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif:

AMMONIA

_________________ Most TOXIC Must be removed QUICKLY Needs MOST water to dilute

_________________ Made from ammonia by liver Less toxic than ammonia Can be stored if diluted with water (Needs less water to dilute than ammonia)

_________________ LEAST TOXIC

Can be stored if diluted with water (Needs LEAST amount of water to dilute)

UREA

URIC ACID


Nitrogen waste1

http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPGhttp://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

NITROGEN WASTE


All waste is not the same
ALL WASTE is NOT THE SAME!http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

made by cells from break down of proteins

left over from undigested food

Handled by digestive system

Handled by

excretory system

Feces (poop)

ammonia, urea, or uric acid


10 body systems5
10 Body Systems http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG:

SKELETAL

6. ___________________

Framework to support body/protection

Skeleton on inside = _______________ Skeleton on outside = _______________

ENDOSKELETON

EXOSKELETON

Walking skeleton image from: http://virtualastronaut.jsc.nasa.gov/textonly/act15/text-skeletonpuz.html

Insect lefg image from:http://www.zoobooks.com/newFrontPage/animals/virtualZoo/animals/i/insects/images/exoskeleton.gif


10 body systems6

Image from: http://kidshealth.org/kid/body/muscles_noSW.htmlhttp://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

10 Body Systems :

MUSCULAR

7. _______________

Locomotion- move body itself

OR

move substances through body (EX: food through digestive system; blood through vessels)

http://www.angliacampus.com/public/sec/science/nutriton/images/peristal.gif


10 body systems7
10 Body Systems http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG:

REPRODUCTIVE

8. _____________________ - Produce offspring by combining genetic material from 2 parents = __________________________

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Produce offspring using genetic material from only 1 parent =_____________________________

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Family image from: http://babyhearing.org/Parenet2Parent/index.asp

Planaria animation: http://www.t3.rim.or.jp/~hylas/planaria/title.htm


10 body systems8
10 Body Systems http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG:

INDIRECT

______________ DEVELOPMENT immature LARVA looks different than adult

__________ DEVELOPMENT young are smaller versions of adults

Metamorphosis image from: http://www.lincoln.midcoast.com/~del/butterfly

Frog image from: http://www.animationlibrary.co

DIRECT

Image from: http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/life/images/grow.JPG


Sperm and egg join http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

outside female’s body = ___________________

Sperm and egg join

inside female’s body = ____________________

External fertilization

Internal fertilization

Animation from: http://discover.edventures.com/images/termlib/f/fertilization/support.gif


9. ___________________http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

Receive sensory infoabout environment &

send response signals

NERVOUS

http://www.roadhunter.com/~ceph/gallery/anatomy07.jpg


ENDOCRINEhttp://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

10. __________________

Make hormones that regulate other body systems

(only in higher animals)

Image from: http://www.cushings-help.com/images/endocrine.jpg


Types of symmetry
Types http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPGof Symmetry

No symmetry

Radial symmetry

Bilateral symmetry


No symmetry

ASYMMETRYhttp://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

___________________No symmetry

Doesn’t matter how you cut it; you never get 2 identical halves.

Example: Sponge

Image from: http://mbgnet.mobot.org/salt/animals/sponges.htm


Symmetry

Radialhttp://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

_______ Symmetry

Jelly fish image: http://www.redfishbluefish.com/BellaLuz/Jellyfish.jpg

Get 2 identical halves in several directions.

http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/animal%20dissections.htm

Image from: http://biodidac.bio.uottawa.ca/


Symmetry1

Bilateralhttp://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

___________ Symmetry

If divide animal down the middle you get 2 mirror images

BUT only divides equally in ONE direction

Image from: http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Documents/Animals/Symmetry.htm


CEPHALIZATIONhttp://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

________________

Concentration of nervous tissue and sensory organsin anterior end of an organism (head area)


Which way is up
Which way is up?http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

DORSAL (top)

ANTERIORhead end

POSTERIOR tail end

VENTRAL (underneath)

Image from: http://www.ca4h.org/4hresource/clipart/animals/pics/dog.gif


Planes of symmetry
Planes of Symmetryhttp://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG


Embryology
EMBRYOLOGYhttp://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

Image from: http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/litu/03_3.shtml

  • Where does BLASTOPORE end up?

  • What do embryos look like as they divide?

  • When do cells decide what they will be?


EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENThttp://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

Becomes digestive system

 Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm


 Images modified from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm


What do embryos look like as they divide
What do embryos look like as they divide?http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

SPIRAL

RADIAL

CLEAVAGE CLEAVAGE

Images from:

http://www.zo.utexas.edu/faculty/sjasper/images/so28_04.gif


When do cells decide what they will become
When do cells decide what they will become?http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

Image from: http://www.rbej.com/content/figures/1477-7827-1-100-1.jpg


Cells decide early http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

Cells decide later

Removing cell OK

Removing cell causes death

DETERMINATE

INDETERMINATE

Images modified from: http://www.rbej.com/content/figures/1477-7827-1-100-1.jpg


THAThttp://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG’S WHERE TWINS

COME FROM!


Animals2
ANIMALShttp://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

DEUTEROSTOMES

PROTOSTOMES

Blastopore becomes ANUS

Blastopore becomes MOUTH

Decide later(INDETERMINATE)

Decide very early (DETERMINATE)

RADIAL cleavage

SPIRAL cleavage

ALL VERTEBRATES (Fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals)plus ECHINODERMS

ALL INVERTEBRATESexcept ECHINODERMS


Embryology1
EMBRYOLOGYhttp://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

Echinoderms

__________________

are the “exception to the rule”!

They are INVERTEBRATES but their embryos act like

_________________________

DEUTEROSTOMES

Image from: http://www.bsac21.freeserve.co.uk/images/Critters/Starfish%20Bloody%20Henry.JPG


EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENThttp://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG

Becomes digestive system

 Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm


All animals except sponges jellyfish anemones have 3 germ layers in their embryos
All animals except sponges, jellyfish, anemones have 3 germ layers in their embryos

Digestive system, respiratory

Endoderm

Mesoderm

Ectoderm

Muscle, excretory, bones,

circulatory

Outer skin, brain, nervous system


Types of coeloms see lums
Types of Coeloms (See-Lums) layers in their embryos

No cavity (space) around organs

Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16labman05/lb5pg10.htm

ACOELOM = “without space”


Flatworms are acoelomates
FLATWORMS are ACOELOMATES layers in their embryos!


Types of coeloms see lums1
Types of Coeloms (See-Lums) layers in their embryos

Space around organs but only lined with mesoderm on one side (mesoderm lines body wall BUT NOT around gut)

Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16labman05/lb5pg10.htm

PSEUDOCOELOM


Round worms are pseudocoelomates
ROUND WORMS are PSEUDOCOELOMATES! layers in their embryos


Kinds of coeloms see lums
Kinds of Coeloms (See-Lums) layers in their embryos

EUCOELOM: Body cavity (space) lined on BOTH sides by mesoderm

Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16labman05/lb5pg10.htm

EUCOELOM = TRUE COELOM = COELOM


Eucoelomates
EUCOELOMATES layers in their embryos

ALL VERTEBRATES & SOME INVERTEBRATES

ALL ANIMALS you will dissect this year are EUCOELOMATES!


3 types of coeloms
3 Types of Coeloms layers in their embryos

ACOELOM

EUCOELOM

PSEUDOCOELOM

ectoderm

mesoderm

endoderm

Image from: http://www.lander.edu/rsfox/310images/310bil5.jpg


Advantages of having a coelom body space
Advantages of having a COELOM (body space): layers in their embryos

Provides space for internal organs

In animals without a skeleton- Fluid in coelom space can act as a HYDROSTATIC skeleton

In animals without blood vessels- Fluid in coelom space can circulate nutrients and oxygen to cells


Why is a eucoelom the best
WHY is a EUCOELOM the best layers in their embryos?

Digestive organ muscles and body wall muscles come from MESODERM in different places so organism can digest food and move at same time.

Images from: http://www.lander.edu/rsfox/310images/310bil5.jpg

http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Images/Animal_Images/coelomate.gif


South dakota core science standards
SOUTH DAKOTA layers in their embryosCORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures,

functions, classifications, and mechanisms found

in living things

9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells.


South dakota core science standards1
SOUTH DAKOTA layers in their embryosCORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures,

functions, classifications, and mechanisms found

in living things

9-12.L.1.2. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationship of major taxa. (APPLICATION)

  • Kingdoms

    Examples: animals, plants, fungi, protista, monera

  • Phyla

    Examples: invertebrates, vertebrates, divisions of plants


South dakota core science standards2
SOUTH DAKOTA layers in their embryosCORE SCIENCE STANDARDS

LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures,

functions, classifications, and mechanisms found

in living things

9-12.L.1.3. Students are able to identify structures and function relationships within major


Core high school life science performance descriptors
Core High School Life Science layers in their embryosPerformance Descriptors


South dakota advanced science standards
SOUTH DAKOTA layers in their embryosADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS

9-12.L.1.5A. Students are able to classify organisms using characteristics and evolutionary relationships of domains. (SYNTHESIS)

Examples:eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes


Sources
SOURCES layers in their embryos

Anemone from: http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/children/animals/cnidaria.gif

Crab from: http://www.gifs.net

Snail from: http://www.lucinda.net/surber/graphics/orlovsky.gif

 Clam from: http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/animal%20dissections.htm

Ant from: http://www.wildaboutbritain.co.uk


Millipede from: layers in their embryos

http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/key/images/invertebrates/millipede.jpg

Starfish from: http://www.gifs.net

Jellyfish from: http://www.aloha.com/~lifeguards/jellie75.jpg


Tree frog: http://www.dynamicearth.co.uk/education/images/tree_frog.jpg

Turtle: http://www.50birds.com/images/endttboxturtle.jpg

Bird: http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/homepage.htm

Fish from: http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/trimethylamine/fish.gif

Orangutan: http://www.biologycorner.com/webquests.php


Earthworm : http://www.dynamicearth.co.uk/education/images/tree_frog.jpghttp://www.york.ac.uk/org/ciec/CaringfortheEnvironment.29.

4.03/Exxon/Food%20Chain%20images/ExxonPicsLarge/Earthworms.jpg

Starfish from: http://www.gifs.net

Snail from: http://www.lucinda.net/surber/graphics/orlovsky.gif

Crab from: http://www.animation-station.com/fish/index.php?page=2


All images on this page from: http://www.dynamicearth.co.uk/education/images/tree_frog.jpghttp://www.seaworld.org/AnimalBytes/animal_bytes.html


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