Urban polycentrism and car use
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Urban Polycentrism and Car Use. Anne Aguiléra LVMT [email protected] Key questions. Does the development of employment subcenters lead to better proximity between place of residence and place of work (reduction of commuting distance)?

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Key questions
Key questions

  • Does the development of employment subcenters lead to better proximity between place of residence and place of work (reduction of commuting distance)?

  • What is the consequence of urban polycentrism on car use?


Methodology
Methodology

  • Analysis of the Paris urban area (1990 and 1999 Census of the Population)

  • Identification of employment subcenters and evolution (1990-1999)

  • Analysis of the growth of commuting distances

  • Consequences on car use


The paris urban area 1999
The Paris Urban Area (1999)

  • 11 millions of inhabitants

  • 5.1 millions of jobs

  • 1583 municipalities

  • We consider only workers living and working in the urban area (4.9 millions)



The identification of urban subcenters
The identification of urban subcenters

  • Attractivity: municipality that attract 85% of the commuters

  • Maximisation of internal commutes: group of municipalities (subcenters)



The subcenters in 1999
The subcenters in 1999

  • 25 subcenters

  • 13% of the municipalities

  • 55% of the jobs (83% of the jobs located outside the city center)


The subcenters in 1990 and in 1999
The subcenters in 1990 and in 1999

  • No new subcenter

  • Some subcenters have sprawled (new municipalities) along the motorways

  • Decrease in the total number of workers (-3%)

  • Increase in the total number of jobs (+4%)

  • Growing jobs-housing imbalance




The main evolution 1990 1999
The main evolution (1990-1999)

  • Decrease of intra-subcenter commutes (-7.6%)

  • Increase of inter-subcenter commutes

  • Decrease of commutes to the center but increase of commutes from the center (to the suburban subcenters)

  • Increase of commutes from and to the rest of the urban area



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