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DISTRIBUTED APPLICATIONS. Session 5 14:00 - 15:00 Dr Deepak B Phatak, IIT Bombay. SESSION OVERVIEW. Indian Banking Scenario Distributed Paradigms How to Construct the Distributed Infrastructure. BANKING BUSINESS. Primarily Based On Interest Spread Fee Based Services

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distributed applications

DISTRIBUTED APPLICATIONS

Session 5 14:00 - 15:00

Dr Deepak B Phatak, IIT Bombay

session overview
SESSION OVERVIEW
  • Indian Banking Scenario
  • Distributed Paradigms
  • How to Construct the Distributed Infrastructure

Distributed Applications

banking business
BANKING BUSINESS
  • Primarily Based On
    • Interest Spread
    • Fee Based Services
  • Multi Location Operations
    • Hierarchical Branch Network

Distributed Applications

banking business4
BANKING BUSINESS
  • Requires Emphasis on
    • Fast Movement of Funds
    • Purposeful Expansion and Retention of Customer Base
    • Non Repudiation of Valid Transactions. (TXNs)

Distributed Applications

conventional retail banking
CONVENTIONAL RETAIL BANKING
  • Low Value High Volume TXNs
  • Attractive Deposit Products
  • Speedy Customer Service
  • Local TXNs, Within a Branch,
  • Remote TXNs, Within A City,
  • Anywhere Globally

Distributed Applications

comeercial banking
COMEERCIAL BANKING
  • Term Loans
    • Speedy Application Processing
    • Avoiding NPAs
  • Fee Based Services
    • Fast Turn Around of TXN
    • Special Services Needed

Distributed Applications

house keeping
HOUSE KEEPING
  • Management Reporting
    • Consolidation Reports
    • Control Reports
    • Performance Reports
    • Statutory Reports
    • Audit Reports

Distributed Applications

indian banking scenario
INDIAN BANKING SCENARIO
  • Traditionally Branch Centric
  • GL is Accounting Backbone
  • S..S..Slow Fund Movement
  • Rudimentary Central Control
  • Focus On Customer Service ???

Distributed Applications

indian banking scenario9
INDIAN BANKING SCENARIO
  • Use Of Modern IT
    • Started with Back Office
    • TBM: Better Local Operations
    • Useless Networks
    • More Useless MIS, DSS

Distributed Applications

indian banking scenario10
INDIAN BANKING SCENARIO
  • Coexistence of Computerised, Semi-Automated and Manual Branch Operations
  • Stronger Networks Emerging
  • Any Banking Paradigm Must
    • Work in Existing Situation
    • Quickly Exploit Changes

Distributed Applications

distributed paradigm
DISTRIBUTED PARADIGM
  • Emerged Primarily
    • To Provide Autonomous Operations at Multiple Sites
    • To Exploit Cheaper MIPS on Smaller Machines
  • All Real Life End to End Computerisation is Distributed

Distributed Applications

distributed paradigms
DISTRIBUTED PARADIGMS
  • Hierarchies of Servers/Clients
  • Use of Message Queues and/Or TP Monitors
  • Multiple Delivery Mechanisms

Distributed Applications

methodologies
METHODOLOGIES
  • Software Engineering
  • Distributed Functionality Design
  • Network Design
  • Configuring an Application for Growth
    • Change Management

Distributed Applications

delivery mechanisms
DELIVERY MECHANISMS
  • Post, Telegrams, Fax
  • Machine Readable Data On Media
  • Data Transfer Through Networks

Distributed Applications

early networks
EARLY NETWORKS
  • Arcnet and Novell
  • Ethernet and Token ring
  • TCP/IP gets embedded into BSD Unix

Distributed Applications

modern networks
MODERN NETWORKS
  • Ethernet
    • 10 Mbps, 75% Market, Over 40 Million nodes
  • Token Ring
    • 4/16 Mbps, 16%
  • Fast Ethernet
    • 100 Mbps, 1%, growing fast

Distributed Applications

modern networks17
MODERN NETWORKS
  • FDDI
    • 100 Mbps, < 1%, Dying
  • ATM
    • 25 Mbps to 2.4 Gbps, Nascent

Distributed Applications

modern networks wan backbone
MODERN NETWORKS (WAN BACKBONE)
  • North American
    • T1 or DS1 : 1.54 Mbps
    • T3 or DS3 : 44.73 Mbps
  • European (and Indian)
    • E1 : 2.04 Mbps (CCITT standard)
    • E2 : 8.44 Mbps
    • E3 : 34.36Mbps

Distributed Applications

modern networks wan backbone19
MODERN NETWORKS (WAN BACKBONE)
  • Sonet fibre Standards (ANSI, Synchronous optical Network)
    • OC1 to OC3
    • (51.84, 103.68, 155.52 Mbps)
    • OC12 (622.08 Mbps)
    • OC24 and OC48
    • (1.244 Gbps, 2.488 Gbps)

Distributed Applications

modern networks20
MODERN NETWORKS
  • LAN-WAN-LAN Interconnect
  • Various LAN Protocols
    • TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, SNA, NETBEUI
  • Remote access PC
    • SLIP, PPP.

Distributed Applications

modern networks21
MODERN NETWORKS
  • LAN to LAN
    • Bridge, Gateway
    • IP Switching.
  • LAN to WAN
    • Multi Protocol Routers.
    • X.25 Switches, Gateway

Distributed Applications

modern networks22
MODERN NETWORKS
  • WAN Backbone
    • IP Over Leased Circuits / Dial up Lines (Internet Is IP)
    • X.25, Frame Relay, ATM (IP Can Run Over These)
    • VSATS ( Delays, 400 ms Per Hop)

Distributed Applications

transactions
TRANSACTIONS
  • ACID Properties Revisited
    • Atomicity: All or None
    • Consistency : Stable & Correct End State
    • Isolation : Unaffected by Other Happenings
    • Durability : Persistent Effect

Distributed Applications

transactions24
TRANSACTIONS
  • A Single User Example
    • Is It Simple to Handle?
    • What Happens in a Crash?
  • Simple If Things Work Correctly
  • Difficult If Things Go Wrong.

Distributed Applications

transactions25
TRANSACTIONS
  • Concurrent Distributed Transactions, More Problems
    • Consistency and Isolation
    • Roll Back Is Difficult
  • Lock Step Synchronization Through Two Phase Commit

Distributed Applications

transactions26
TRANSACTIONS
  • Flat Transactions
    • Activities Are at Same Level
    • SQL Implements Two Phase Commit Protocol
    • Backbone of Most (Leaf-level) Applications

Distributed Applications

flat transactions
FLAT TRANSACTIONS
  • Limitations
    • Complex Sub-activities With Partial Roll Back?
    • Human in the Loop Locks Resources
    • Temporally Long Transactions
    • Bulk Update Transaction

Distributed Applications

payment settlement
PAYMENT SETTLEMENT

A Complex Transaction

  • Jena of Jharsuguda gives a cheque to Kantheeswaran at Kandivali
    • Kanthee Banks with Bank A at Kandiwali: A(K)
    • Jena With Bank B(J)

Distributed Applications

payment settlement29
PAYMENT SETTLEMENT
  • Kanthee Presents Cheque to A(K) and demands money
  • A(J) credits Kanthee’s account AFTER collecting from B(J)

Distributed Applications

distributed processing solution
DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING SOLUTION

NCC

Bank A

Distributed

Transaction

Bank B

Kandiwali

Jharsuguda

Local Data Base

Local Data Base

Jena

Kantheeswaran

Distributed Applications

payment settlement31
PAYMENT SETTLEMENT
  • A presents the instrument to NCC
  • NCC records information
    • Sorts all Instruments for Bank B
    • Asks B to pay A
  • B sends Cheque to Jharsuguda (J)

Distributed Applications

payment settlement32
PAYMENT SETTLEMENT
  • B(J) debits Jena
  • Informs NCC and A(K)
  • A(K) credits Kanthee
  • Multiple Service Branches Are Actually Involved

Distributed Applications

payment settlement33
PAYMENT SETTLEMENT
  • Transaction becomes funny if
    • Jena has no funds
    • Cheque is lost in transit
    • B Debits Jena But Sits Tight
    • A Receives Info, But Does Not Credit Kanthee

Distributed Applications

payment settlement34
PAYMENT SETTLEMENT
  • More fun
  • NCC Asks B to Pay A
    • Later, B says give back my money
  • Jena debited but Kanthee not credited (Someone Using Float)
    • Kanthee sues A for delay

Distributed Applications

distributed processing solution35
DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING SOLUTION

NCC

Inter Bank

Transaction Switch

B

Switch

A

Switch

Bank A

Distributed

Transaction

Bank B

Kandiwali

Jharsuguda

Local Data Base

Local Data Base

Jena

Kantheeswaran

Distributed Applications

transactions36
TRANSACTIONS
  • Emerging Transaction requirements
    • Distributed Transaction
    • Multiple Processing Nodes
    • Not All Nodes Computerised
    • Not All Links Electronic

Distributed Applications

transactions37
TRANSACTIONS
  • ACID properties difficult to maintain for a Complex Transaction
  • Human in the Loop is a MUST
    • Carry Physical Instruments
    • Multiple Data Capture
    • Verify Signatures at B(J)

Distributed Applications

transactions38
TRANSACTIONS
  • A Possible Solution is To Reduce Humans in the Loop
    • Cheque Is a Message and Not a Physical Instrument
    • NCC Is a Swithing System and Not a Physical Clearing House
    • Electronic Transfer

Distributed Applications

transactions39
TRANSACTIONS
  • Multiple Ways of Handling
    • MICR processing
    • Electronic Fund Transfer
    • Debit and Credit Clearing
    • Completely Automated Switch

Distributed Applications

transactions40
TRANSACTIONS
  • Emerging Requirements
    • Multi Location Transactions
    • Incorporation of Work Flow
    • Internet Transactions

Distributed Applications

middleware
MIDDLEWARE
  • A Vague Term
  • All Distributed Software Components That Support Interactions Between Application Software Executing On Clients and Servers

Distributed Applications

middleware42
MIDDLEWARE
  • General
    • Communication stacks
    • Distributed Directories
    • Authentication Service
    • Remote Procedure calls
    • Queuing Services
    • Message Oriented Middleware (MOM)

Distributed Applications

middleware43
MIDDLEWARE
  • Service Specific
    • Database related : ODBC, DRDA, CLI
    • OLTP Specific : ATMI ( Tuxedo)
    • Groupware Specific : MAPI, LN calls
    • Object Specific : CORBA, OLE
    • Internet Specific : HTTP, SSL
    • Management Specific : SNMP, ORBs

Distributed Applications

peer to peer communication
PEER TO PEER COMMUNICATION
  • Connection Oriented
    • Synchronous
  • Connection Less
    • Asynchronous, Store and Forward

Distributed Applications

examples of distributed paradigm
EXAMPLES OF DISTRIBUTED PARADIGM
  • Bank Master and Branch Power
  • Bancs 2000
  • Micro Banker and Finware

Distributed Applications

examples of distributed paradigm46
EXAMPLES OF DISTRIBUTED PARADIGM
  • Provide Branch Functionality When Network Non Functional
  • Provide Complete Customer Account and TXN Info
  • Attempt to Provide Retail and Commercial Functionality

Distributed Applications

examples of distributed paradigm47
EXAMPLES OF DISTRIBUTED PARADIGM
  • SBI
  • IDBI Bank
  • ICICI Bank
  • HDFC Bank
  • A Malysian Bank Uses Four Servers For Many Branches

Distributed Applications

distributed infrastructure
DISTRIBUTED INFRASTRUCTURE
  • Needs Indian Messaging Standards
  • Needs Proper Application Software Development
  • Needs Work Flow Changes

Distributed Applications

building blocks
BUILDING BLOCKS
  • OS Services
    • Task Preemption, Task Priority
    • Semaphores, Inter process communications
    • Threads
  • Netware, NT, OS2 Warp, UNIX

Distributed Applications

building blocks50
BUILDING BLOCKS
  • OS Services
    • Multi user high performance File System
    • Efficient Memory Management
    • Dynamically linked run time extensions

Distributed Applications

building blocks51
BUILDING BLOCKS
  • More O.S. Services
    • Ubiquitous Communications
    • Network operating System Extensions
    • Binary Large Objects (BLOBs)
    • Global Directories
    • Authentication and Authorization Services

Distributed Applications

building blocks52
BUILDING BLOCKS
  • More O.S. Services
    • System Management
    • Network time
    • Database and Transaction Services
    • Internet Services
    • Object-Oriented Services

Distributed Applications

building blocks53
BUILDING BLOCKS
  • Server Scalability
  • Symmetric Multiprocessor Systems (SMP)
  • Massively Parallel Processors based Servers (MPP)
  • Clusters

Distributed Applications

building blocks54
BUILDING BLOCKS
  • Client Systems
  • Non-GUI
    • ATMs, Barcode readers, cellular phones, fax machines
    • Robots, Testers, Daemon Processes
  • GUI Clients
    • Graphics, Menus, Windows, dialogues

Distributed Applications

building blocks55
BUILDING BLOCKS
  • OOUI Clients
    • Communicating objects
    • Seamless access to information and action
  • Compound Documents
    • Live components
  • NextStep, Mac OS

Distributed Applications

building blocks56
BUILDING BLOCKS
  • SHIPPABLE PLACES
    • Place: A visual ensemble of related components
    • Shippable Place: A mobile container
    • can interact with collaborative environments
    • Web, web form, Java enabled web pages, Compound Docs

Distributed Applications

network operating systems
NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS
  • Provide transparency in
    • Location, Namespace, logon
    • replication, access, time, failure
  • Distributed Security (C2)
    • Authentication, Authorisation
    • Audit trails

Distributed Applications

more on security
MORE ON SECURITY
  • Kerberos from Athena (MIT)
  • Encryption, Session Key
  • Data Encryption Standard (DES-3)
    • Shared Private key
  • RSA, DH Algorithms
    • Public/Private key

Distributed Applications

peer to peer communication59
PEER TO PEER COMMUNICATION
  • Sockets
    • BSD 4.2 UNIX, 1981
    • Netid.Hostid.Portid (IP + Port)
    • Port (16 bit): entry point to service
  • Transport Layer Interface (TLI)
    • AT&T, 1986

Distributed Applications

peer to peer communication60
PEER TO PEER COMMUNICATION
  • Connection Oriented
    • Session based
    • Virtual Circuits
  • Connectionless
    • Datagrams

Distributed Applications

peer to peer communication61
PEER TO PEER COMMUNICATION
  • Internet Package Exchange IPX
    • Based on Xerox Network Services (XNS)
    • Sequential Packet Exchange (SPX)
  • NetBIOS, NetBEUI
    • IBM, Sytec (1984), Microsoft

Distributed Applications

peer to peer communication62
PEER TO PEER COMMUNICATION
  • Named Pipes
  • Remote Procedure Calls
    • Locate and start Server functions
    • Define and pass parameters
    • Handle Security and Failures
    • Data representation

Distributed Applications

peer to peer communication63
PEER TO PEER COMMUNICATION
  • Message Oriented Middleware (MOM)
    • Distributed Application Development (DAD) needs MOM
    • MOM consortium in 1993
    • Queued Vs Call-return of RPC
    • Provides Asynchronous Mechanism
    • Ideal for Objets

Distributed Applications

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