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DISTRIBUTED APPLICATIONS. Session 5 14:00 - 15:00 Dr Deepak B Phatak, IIT Bombay. SESSION OVERVIEW. Indian Banking Scenario Distributed Paradigms How to Construct the Distributed Infrastructure. BANKING BUSINESS. Primarily Based On Interest Spread Fee Based Services

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DISTRIBUTED APPLICATIONS

Session 5 14:00 - 15:00

Dr Deepak B Phatak, IIT Bombay


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SESSION OVERVIEW

  • Indian Banking Scenario

  • Distributed Paradigms

  • How to Construct the Distributed Infrastructure

Distributed Applications


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BANKING BUSINESS

  • Primarily Based On

    • Interest Spread

    • Fee Based Services

  • Multi Location Operations

    • Hierarchical Branch Network

Distributed Applications


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BANKING BUSINESS

  • Requires Emphasis on

    • Fast Movement of Funds

    • Purposeful Expansion and Retention of Customer Base

    • Non Repudiation of Valid Transactions. (TXNs)

Distributed Applications


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CONVENTIONAL RETAIL BANKING

  • Low Value High Volume TXNs

  • Attractive Deposit Products

  • Speedy Customer Service

  • Local TXNs, Within a Branch,

  • Remote TXNs, Within A City,

  • Anywhere Globally

Distributed Applications


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COMEERCIAL BANKING

  • Term Loans

    • Speedy Application Processing

    • Avoiding NPAs

  • Fee Based Services

    • Fast Turn Around of TXN

    • Special Services Needed

Distributed Applications


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HOUSE KEEPING

  • Management Reporting

    • Consolidation Reports

    • Control Reports

    • Performance Reports

    • Statutory Reports

    • Audit Reports

Distributed Applications


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INDIAN BANKING SCENARIO

  • Traditionally Branch Centric

  • GL is Accounting Backbone

  • S..S..Slow Fund Movement

  • Rudimentary Central Control

  • Focus On Customer Service ???

Distributed Applications


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INDIAN BANKING SCENARIO

  • Use Of Modern IT

    • Started with Back Office

    • TBM: Better Local Operations

    • Useless Networks

    • More Useless MIS, DSS

Distributed Applications


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INDIAN BANKING SCENARIO

  • Coexistence of Computerised, Semi-Automated and Manual Branch Operations

  • Stronger Networks Emerging

  • Any Banking Paradigm Must

    • Work in Existing Situation

    • Quickly Exploit Changes

Distributed Applications


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DISTRIBUTED PARADIGM

  • Emerged Primarily

    • To Provide Autonomous Operations at Multiple Sites

    • To Exploit Cheaper MIPS on Smaller Machines

  • All Real Life End to End Computerisation is Distributed

Distributed Applications


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DISTRIBUTED PARADIGMS

  • Hierarchies of Servers/Clients

  • Use of Message Queues and/Or TP Monitors

  • Multiple Delivery Mechanisms

Distributed Applications


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METHODOLOGIES

  • Software Engineering

  • Distributed Functionality Design

  • Network Design

  • Configuring an Application for Growth

    • Change Management

Distributed Applications


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DELIVERY MECHANISMS

  • Post, Telegrams, Fax

  • Machine Readable Data On Media

  • Data Transfer Through Networks

Distributed Applications


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EARLY NETWORKS

  • Arcnet and Novell

  • Ethernet and Token ring

  • TCP/IP gets embedded into BSD Unix

Distributed Applications


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MODERN NETWORKS

  • Ethernet

    • 10 Mbps, 75% Market, Over 40 Million nodes

  • Token Ring

    • 4/16 Mbps, 16%

  • Fast Ethernet

    • 100 Mbps, 1%, growing fast

Distributed Applications


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MODERN NETWORKS

  • FDDI

    • 100 Mbps, < 1%, Dying

  • ATM

    • 25 Mbps to 2.4 Gbps, Nascent

Distributed Applications


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MODERN NETWORKS (WAN BACKBONE)

  • North American

    • T1 or DS1 : 1.54 Mbps

    • T3 or DS3 : 44.73 Mbps

  • European (and Indian)

    • E1 : 2.04 Mbps (CCITT standard)

    • E2 : 8.44 Mbps

    • E3 : 34.36Mbps

Distributed Applications


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MODERN NETWORKS (WAN BACKBONE)

  • Sonet fibre Standards (ANSI, Synchronous optical Network)

    • OC1 to OC3

    • (51.84, 103.68, 155.52 Mbps)

    • OC12 (622.08 Mbps)

    • OC24 and OC48

    • (1.244 Gbps, 2.488 Gbps)

Distributed Applications


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MODERN NETWORKS

  • LAN-WAN-LAN Interconnect

  • Various LAN Protocols

    • TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, SNA, NETBEUI

  • Remote access PC

    • SLIP, PPP.

Distributed Applications


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MODERN NETWORKS

  • LAN to LAN

    • Bridge, Gateway

    • IP Switching.

  • LAN to WAN

    • Multi Protocol Routers.

    • X.25 Switches, Gateway

Distributed Applications


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MODERN NETWORKS

  • WAN Backbone

    • IP Over Leased Circuits / Dial up Lines (Internet Is IP)

    • X.25, Frame Relay, ATM (IP Can Run Over These)

    • VSATS ( Delays, 400 ms Per Hop)

Distributed Applications


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TRANSACTIONS

  • ACID Properties Revisited

    • Atomicity: All or None

    • Consistency : Stable & Correct End State

    • Isolation : Unaffected by Other Happenings

    • Durability : Persistent Effect

Distributed Applications


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TRANSACTIONS

  • A Single User Example

    • Is It Simple to Handle?

    • What Happens in a Crash?

  • Simple If Things Work Correctly

  • Difficult If Things Go Wrong.

Distributed Applications


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TRANSACTIONS

  • Concurrent Distributed Transactions, More Problems

    • Consistency and Isolation

    • Roll Back Is Difficult

  • Lock Step Synchronization Through Two Phase Commit

Distributed Applications


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TRANSACTIONS

  • Flat Transactions

    • Activities Are at Same Level

    • SQL Implements Two Phase Commit Protocol

    • Backbone of Most (Leaf-level) Applications

Distributed Applications


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FLAT TRANSACTIONS

  • Limitations

    • Complex Sub-activities With Partial Roll Back?

    • Human in the Loop Locks Resources

    • Temporally Long Transactions

    • Bulk Update Transaction

Distributed Applications


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PAYMENT SETTLEMENT

A Complex Transaction

  • Jena of Jharsuguda gives a cheque to Kantheeswaran at Kandivali

    • Kanthee Banks with Bank A at Kandiwali: A(K)

    • Jena With Bank B(J)

Distributed Applications


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PAYMENT SETTLEMENT

  • Kanthee Presents Cheque to A(K) and demands money

  • A(J) credits Kanthee’s account AFTER collecting from B(J)

Distributed Applications


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DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING SOLUTION

NCC

Bank A

Distributed

Transaction

Bank B

Kandiwali

Jharsuguda

Local Data Base

Local Data Base

Jena

Kantheeswaran

Distributed Applications


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PAYMENT SETTLEMENT

  • A presents the instrument to NCC

  • NCC records information

    • Sorts all Instruments for Bank B

    • Asks B to pay A

  • B sends Cheque to Jharsuguda (J)

Distributed Applications


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PAYMENT SETTLEMENT

  • B(J) debits Jena

  • Informs NCC and A(K)

  • A(K) credits Kanthee

  • Multiple Service Branches Are Actually Involved

Distributed Applications


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PAYMENT SETTLEMENT

  • Transaction becomes funny if

    • Jena has no funds

    • Cheque is lost in transit

    • B Debits Jena But Sits Tight

    • A Receives Info, But Does Not Credit Kanthee

Distributed Applications


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PAYMENT SETTLEMENT

  • More fun

  • NCC Asks B to Pay A

    • Later, B says give back my money

  • Jena debited but Kanthee not credited (Someone Using Float)

    • Kanthee sues A for delay

Distributed Applications


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DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING SOLUTION

NCC

Inter Bank

Transaction Switch

B

Switch

A

Switch

Bank A

Distributed

Transaction

Bank B

Kandiwali

Jharsuguda

Local Data Base

Local Data Base

Jena

Kantheeswaran

Distributed Applications


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TRANSACTIONS

  • Emerging Transaction requirements

    • Distributed Transaction

    • Multiple Processing Nodes

    • Not All Nodes Computerised

    • Not All Links Electronic

Distributed Applications


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TRANSACTIONS

  • ACID properties difficult to maintain for a Complex Transaction

  • Human in the Loop is a MUST

    • Carry Physical Instruments

    • Multiple Data Capture

    • Verify Signatures at B(J)

Distributed Applications


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TRANSACTIONS

  • A Possible Solution is To Reduce Humans in the Loop

    • Cheque Is a Message and Not a Physical Instrument

    • NCC Is a Swithing System and Not a Physical Clearing House

    • Electronic Transfer

Distributed Applications


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TRANSACTIONS

  • Multiple Ways of Handling

    • MICR processing

    • Electronic Fund Transfer

    • Debit and Credit Clearing

    • Completely Automated Switch

Distributed Applications


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TRANSACTIONS

  • Emerging Requirements

    • Multi Location Transactions

    • Incorporation of Work Flow

    • Internet Transactions

Distributed Applications


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MIDDLEWARE

  • A Vague Term

  • All Distributed Software Components That Support Interactions Between Application Software Executing On Clients and Servers

Distributed Applications


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MIDDLEWARE

  • General

    • Communication stacks

    • Distributed Directories

    • Authentication Service

    • Remote Procedure calls

    • Queuing Services

    • Message Oriented Middleware (MOM)

Distributed Applications


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MIDDLEWARE

  • Service Specific

    • Database related : ODBC, DRDA, CLI

    • OLTP Specific : ATMI ( Tuxedo)

    • Groupware Specific : MAPI, LN calls

    • Object Specific : CORBA, OLE

    • Internet Specific : HTTP, SSL

    • Management Specific : SNMP, ORBs

Distributed Applications


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PEER TO PEER COMMUNICATION

  • Connection Oriented

    • Synchronous

  • Connection Less

    • Asynchronous, Store and Forward

Distributed Applications


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EXAMPLES OF DISTRIBUTED PARADIGM

  • Bank Master and Branch Power

  • Bancs 2000

  • Micro Banker and Finware

Distributed Applications


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EXAMPLES OF DISTRIBUTED PARADIGM

  • Provide Branch Functionality When Network Non Functional

  • Provide Complete Customer Account and TXN Info

  • Attempt to Provide Retail and Commercial Functionality

Distributed Applications


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EXAMPLES OF DISTRIBUTED PARADIGM

  • SBI

  • IDBI Bank

  • ICICI Bank

  • HDFC Bank

  • A Malysian Bank Uses Four Servers For Many Branches

Distributed Applications


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DISTRIBUTED INFRASTRUCTURE

  • Needs Indian Messaging Standards

  • Needs Proper Application Software Development

  • Needs Work Flow Changes

Distributed Applications


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BUILDING BLOCKS

  • OS Services

    • Task Preemption, Task Priority

    • Semaphores, Inter process communications

    • Threads

  • Netware, NT, OS2 Warp, UNIX

Distributed Applications


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BUILDING BLOCKS

  • OS Services

    • Multi user high performance File System

    • Efficient Memory Management

    • Dynamically linked run time extensions

Distributed Applications


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BUILDING BLOCKS

  • More O.S. Services

    • Ubiquitous Communications

    • Network operating System Extensions

    • Binary Large Objects (BLOBs)

    • Global Directories

    • Authentication and Authorization Services

Distributed Applications


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BUILDING BLOCKS

  • More O.S. Services

    • System Management

    • Network time

    • Database and Transaction Services

    • Internet Services

    • Object-Oriented Services

Distributed Applications


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BUILDING BLOCKS

  • Server Scalability

  • Symmetric Multiprocessor Systems (SMP)

  • Massively Parallel Processors based Servers (MPP)

  • Clusters

Distributed Applications


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BUILDING BLOCKS

  • Client Systems

  • Non-GUI

    • ATMs, Barcode readers, cellular phones, fax machines

    • Robots, Testers, Daemon Processes

  • GUI Clients

    • Graphics, Menus, Windows, dialogues

Distributed Applications


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BUILDING BLOCKS

  • OOUI Clients

    • Communicating objects

    • Seamless access to information and action

  • Compound Documents

    • Live components

  • NextStep, Mac OS

Distributed Applications


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BUILDING BLOCKS

  • SHIPPABLE PLACES

    • Place: A visual ensemble of related components

    • Shippable Place: A mobile container

    • can interact with collaborative environments

    • Web, web form, Java enabled web pages, Compound Docs

Distributed Applications


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NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS

  • Provide transparency in

    • Location, Namespace, logon

    • replication, access, time, failure

  • Distributed Security (C2)

    • Authentication, Authorisation

    • Audit trails

Distributed Applications


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MORE ON SECURITY

  • Kerberos from Athena (MIT)

  • Encryption, Session Key

  • Data Encryption Standard (DES-3)

    • Shared Private key

  • RSA, DH Algorithms

    • Public/Private key

Distributed Applications


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PEER TO PEER COMMUNICATION

  • Sockets

    • BSD 4.2 UNIX, 1981

    • Netid.Hostid.Portid (IP + Port)

    • Port (16 bit): entry point to service

  • Transport Layer Interface (TLI)

    • AT&T, 1986

Distributed Applications


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PEER TO PEER COMMUNICATION

  • Connection Oriented

    • Session based

    • Virtual Circuits

  • Connectionless

    • Datagrams

Distributed Applications


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PEER TO PEER COMMUNICATION

  • Internet Package Exchange IPX

    • Based on Xerox Network Services (XNS)

    • Sequential Packet Exchange (SPX)

  • NetBIOS, NetBEUI

    • IBM, Sytec (1984), Microsoft

Distributed Applications


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PEER TO PEER COMMUNICATION

  • Named Pipes

  • Remote Procedure Calls

    • Locate and start Server functions

    • Define and pass parameters

    • Handle Security and Failures

    • Data representation

Distributed Applications


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PEER TO PEER COMMUNICATION

  • Message Oriented Middleware (MOM)

    • Distributed Application Development (DAD) needs MOM

    • MOM consortium in 1993

    • Queued Vs Call-return of RPC

    • Provides Asynchronous Mechanism

    • Ideal for Objets

Distributed Applications


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