Aristotle (384-321 BCE). Biography. Studied at Plato ’ s Academy Founded the Lyceum Tutored Alexander the Great Classified and mapped out knowledge Logic, physics, rhetoric, ethics, metaphysics, etc. “ Everyone is either a Platonist or an Aristotelian ”. Aristotelian Favor the concrete
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Matter + Form = Substance
Acorn Sapling Young Tree Mature Tree
S U B S T A N C E
“In arguing that actuality is more fundamental than potentiality, Aristotle effectively argues that the chicken comes before the egg, as one commentator puts it. He is telling us that an object can only be a potential something if there is already an actual something for that object to become. This claim has the paradoxical result that, for instance, the chicken must already exist for the egg to be a potential chicken. Of course, it is obviously false that individual chickens precede individual eggs: every chicken that now exists must have been an egg at some point. However, according to book Zeta, individual chickens are not substances. The species of chicken is a substance, and there can be no chicken eggs until there is a species called “chicken” for those eggs to become. After all, we cannot point to an object and say, “that is a chicken egg” if there is no such thing as a chicken. Substance is the most fundamental thing there is, so substance must be an actuality. Since, as Aristotle has argued earlier, nothing can exist unless substance exists, that means that potentialities cannot exist unless their actualities as substances already exist.”