. we now have an educational economy that makes information abundant confronting an educational delivery system built for a time in which information was scarce."- Lev Gonick, CIO, Case Western Reserve. What is a Textbook ?. a book written and produced specifically for instructional use"-
1. 21st Century Resources: Student Developed WikiBooks as College Textbooks
2. “…we now have an educational economy that makes information abundant confronting an educational delivery system built for a time in which information was scarce.”
- Lev Gonick, CIO, Case Western Reserve
3. What is a Textbook ? a book “written and produced specifically for instructional use”
- Chris Stray
In a literature class, Moby Dick would not be a textbook but the Norton Anthology would be
4. Wiki The simplest online database that could possibly work.
Wiki is a piece of server software that allows users to freely create and edit Web page content using any Web browser. Wiki supports hyperlinks and has a simple text syntax for creating new pages
5. Developed by Howard “Ward” Cunningham in 1994
“A wiki invites all users to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using only a plain-vanilla Web browser without any extra add-ons.
Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation almost intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.
A wiki is not a carefully crafted site for casual visitors. Instead, it seeks to involve the visitor in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the Web site landscape.
Named for the shuttle bus at the Honolulu airport.”
6. Technology and Education Technology has always been used in education
7. Earliest textbook may be Plato’s Dialogues, a review text for Greek philosophers
8. Early Textbooks – Orbis Sensualium Pictus - 1658
9. 17th Century State of the Art Visual - used 300 woodcuts to illustrate the lessons
Early example of using sensory experience to foster learning
Bi- and tri-lingual
Published 1658 with an English edition in 1659
Used until the 19th Century
10. In the Invitation Comenius’ begins with a dialogue between the Master and a Pupil
Master: Come boy! Learn to be wise.
Pupil: What doth this mean, to be wise?
Master: To understand rightly, to do rightly,and to speak out rightly, all that are necessary
11. In the Invitation, Comenius states the purpose of instruction : wisdom
States the goals: true understanding, right action and correct speech concerning what is necessary
Specifies tasks to be learned
Outlines a method to accomplish them: guide, show and name
12. Not a replacement for a teacher
Described as “a new help for schools”
Piaget praised it as enabling “ the real knowledge created by the action of the pupil upon the objects of his study”
13. The question is how best to use technology to improve teaching and learning
Given the ubiquity of technology do we need to reconceptualize the textbook?
Is it more important for students to “find, sort, analyze, share, discuss, critique and create information…than to know, memorize or recall information”?
14. Wesch estimated that there are 2,000 gigabytes of new information created per second
What’s a gigabyte ?
1 hour of HDTV video is 4.2 gigabytes so 2000 gigabytes = 476 hours or 20 days of programming
15. What are the needs of learners in the 21st century? “thinking creatively, making decisions, solving problems, seeing things in the mind’s eye, knowing how to learn, reasoning” SCANS Report (The Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills, 1991)
adaptability, information literacy, integrative learning (cross functional applications), real world application and critical thinking
16. A Diversion – Critical Thinking individual initiative, self-responsibility, questioning, risk taking, honesty, flexibility, integrity, cooperation and tolerance of ambiguity
work through difficulties, weigh alternatives, deliberate alternative pathways to solutions
Not what how why but why how what
17. WikiBooks as Textbooks Program at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia
2006 – 2008
ECI 301, The Social and Cultural Foundations of American Education
>200 enrollments each semester; 70% female; ages 18-50+
18. WikiBooks as Textbooks Ran concomitantly with a research course focused on implementation and evaluation of the course
77 topics selected – framework of the course devised similar to an outline for a conventional text; with 200 students, each topic would receive three treatments
Students could also submit topics
19. WikiBooks as Textbooks
Sample topics :
21. Each student required to submit a 1000 word article on their topic (total of 3)
Each student submitted a sidebar- add to richness of material (picture, graph, anecdote)
22. WikiBooks Example http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Social_and_Cultural_Foundations_of_American_Education/Second_Edition/Chapter_1
24. Originally students rated the essays on a 3-point scale; most highly rated by peers would be the ‘official’ version
Subsequent revisions students rated on four attributes and on a 5-point scale:
25. Advantages of the WikiBooks Approach Recall Piaget on Orbis Sensualium Pictus: enabling “ the real knowledge created by the action of the pupil upon the objects of his study”
Dynamic, interactive and cooperative
Mandates a shared responsibility for learning
Involves skills and attitudes as well as information
26. Advantages of WikiBooks Approach Problem centered
Capitalizes on indigenous knowledge that arises from users
Fosters learning how to learn
Learner centered not teacher centered
27. Challenges of WikiBooks Approach Credibility from expert versus student perspective
Creation of initial framework for course is critical
Assessment of sources from the web
For instance, a search for T. S. Eliot’s quote: “Here were decent godless people. Their only monument the asphalt road. And a thousand lost golf balls.” Yielded-
29. The role of the teacher as guide is essential
30. The Future of the Textbook WikiBooks a way not the way
Perhaps in the future teachers with a variety of different teaching styles will select from a suite of technologies matched to those styles, demands of the curriculum and the needs of learners.