Biological Molecules Focus on Carbohydrates. (See pages 31-41). General Reactions. MONOMERS. Dehydration Synthesis. Hydrolysis. 5H 2 O. 5H 2 O. POLYMER. Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are polymers of monosaccharides (simple sugars).
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(See pages 31-41)
Glucose + 6O2
6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
1. Monosaccharides (One simple sugar):
Three major types:
A. Glucose – the primary energy source for
the body. Most polysaccharides are
eventually broken down to glucose by
our digestive system.
-- found naturally in green plants
-- chemical formula = (C6H12O6)
-- possesses the same chemical
formula as glucose but has
one different arrangement of –H
and –OH on carbon #4.
C. Fructose – found in fruits
-- same formula as glucose, but a
much different –H, –OH, and C
After his first fight he ditched his old nickname:
Monosaccharide Ray Leonard
-- formed when two monosaccharides undergo DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS (producing a water molecule as well).
Three Major Types:
A. Maltose –Made up of two glucose molecules (studied in Biology 12)
B. Sucrose – Made up of one glucose and one fructose molecule
C. Lactose – Made up of one glucose and one galactose molecule
Formula for Maltose: C12H22O11 – which is equal to 2 x Glucose minus one water…
-- a POLYMER of monosaccharides.
-- three polysaccharides are common in living things (all are polymers of glucose, but differ in their branching patterns):
A. Starch – storage form of glucose in
-- few side branches (very simple
-- the existing side branches all span
in the same direction
-- relatively straight molecule but adopts an
energy-efficient helical shape.
-- see figure 2.19 p. 33
-- easy to digest
-- more branched than starch (see
fig. 2.20 p. 33)
-- also easy to digest as the branching
allows digestion to occur at several
-- the liver converts excess glucose to
glycogen and stores it.
-- muscles also convert glucose to
glycogen and store it.
plant cell walls.
-- possesses a much different type of
linkage between glucose molecules
(see fig. 2.21 p. 33).
-- humans are unable to digest
cellulose molecules; they pass right
through our digestive tract as fibre or
Damn, I’m lookin’ good! Probably because of my diet!