Biological Molecules Focus on Carbohydrates. (See pages 31-41). General Reactions. MONOMERS. Dehydration Synthesis. Hydrolysis. 5H 2 O. 5H 2 O. POLYMER. Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are polymers of monosaccharides (simple sugars).
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Biological MoleculesFocus on Carbohydrates
(See pages 31-41)
Glucose + 6O2
6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
1. Monosaccharides (One simple sugar):
Three major types:
A. Glucose – the primary energy source for
the body. Most polysaccharides are
eventually broken down to glucose by
our digestive system.
-- found naturally in green plants
-- chemical formula = (C6H12O6)
B. Galactose – found in milk
-- possesses the same chemical
formula as glucose but has
one different arrangement of –H
and –OH on carbon #4.
C. Fructose – found in fruits
-- same formula as glucose, but a
much different –H, –OH, and C
Sugar Ray Leonard
After his first fight he ditched his old nickname:
Monosaccharide Ray Leonard
2. Disaccharides (Two Sugars):
-- formed when two monosaccharides undergo DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS (producing a water molecule as well).
Three Major Types:
A. Maltose –Made up of two glucose molecules (studied in Biology 12)
B. Sucrose – Made up of one glucose and one fructose molecule
C. Lactose – Made up of one glucose and one galactose molecule
Formula for Maltose: C12H22O11 – which is equal to 2 x Glucose minus one water…
3. Polysaccharides (Long chains of sugars):
-- a POLYMER of monosaccharides.
-- three polysaccharides are common in living things (all are polymers of glucose, but differ in their branching patterns):
A. Starch – storage form of glucose in
-- few side branches (very simple
-- the existing side branches all span
in the same direction
-- relatively straight molecule but adopts an
energy-efficient helical shape.
-- see figure 2.19 p. 33
-- easy to digest
B. Glycogen – storage form of glucose in
-- more branched than starch (see
fig. 2.20 p. 33)
-- also easy to digest as the branching
allows digestion to occur at several
-- the liver converts excess glucose to
glycogen and stores it.
-- muscles also convert glucose to
glycogen and store it.
C. Cellulose – the structural component of
plant cell walls.
-- possesses a much different type of
linkage between glucose molecules
(see fig. 2.21 p. 33).
-- humans are unable to digest
cellulose molecules; they pass right
through our digestive tract as fibre or
-- cows (and other ruminant animals) are able to digest cellulose due to the presence of symbiotic bacteria that exist in their stomachs, bacteria which humans do not house.
I’ll RUN WILD on you Atkins…eat your CARBS, brother!!!
Damn, I’m lookin’ good! Probably because of my diet!