#15. How was the Persian Empire established?
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Established by King Darius, conquering land surrounding Greece, including Greek colonies & islands. However, mainland Greece (peninsula) would not be conquered by the Persians, because they had a better knowledge of their own geography, and used this knowledge to their advantage.
#16. Cause/Effects of Persian Wars:
1. Ionian Revolt: Happened because Ionia conquered by Persians, Persians angry at Athens for their assistance>2. Battle of Marathon: soldier ran 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to warn them of Persian attack, allowed Athens to prepare and win battle>3. Battle of Thermopylae: Athenian traitor gave Persians access to a route to attack Athens, Xerses had Athens burnt to the ground>4. Battle of Salamis: Sparta helped Athens on island, once again used geography to their advantage and defeat Persians>5. Battle of Plataea: Greek army equals in size to Persians, defeats them easily, Persians never return to fight Greece.>6. Several decades later, Sparta is angry at Athens for misusing funds to pretect vs. Athens, fight each other in Peloponnesian War.>7. Because of internal conflict in Greece, neighboring Macedonia, under King Philip II, conquer all of Greece. Philip’s son, Alexander the Great, would unite Greece and conquer most of the known world at the time.