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Dept of Phys. M.C. Chang. Nano-technology in a nutshell. ENIAC circa 1947. Physical characteristics: 17,468 vacuum tubes; 1,500 relays 60,000 pounds; 16,200 cubic feet 174 kilowatts (233 horsepower) 5,000 addition/sec. (~ same as Intel 4004)

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Nano-technology in a nutshell

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Dept of Phys

M.C. Chang

Nano-technology in a nutshell


ENIAC circa 1947

Physical characteristics:

  • 17,468 vacuum tubes; 1,500 relays

  • 60,000 pounds; 16,200 cubic feet

  • 174 kilowatts (233 horsepower)

  • 5,000 addition/sec. (~ same as Intel 4004)

  • 5.25 MJoule/trajectory (~ fire an artillery shell)

Future prediction (Popular Mechanics, 1949):

  • 1,500 vacuum tubes; 10 kilowatts

  • 3,000 pounds (~ size of an automobile)


  • The invention of transistor

  • (1947, Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley)

  • small size

  • less electricity

  • no movable part

  • faster turn-on time

1956


Pentium 4

4.2 million transistors

The invention of IC

(1959, Kilby and Noyce)

Intel 4004 (1971)

2250 transistors

2000


A silicon wafer

A silicon single crystal


Moore’s law


Moore’s Second Law

Cost of Fab

$50B

$40B

360B

$20B

$10B

$0B

1992

1995

1998

2001

2004

2007

2010

Year


  • mems microphone (PC, cellular phone)

  • mems accelerometer (safety bag, Wii, PC, camera, air guitar…)

  • other mems sensors (pressure, heat …)

  • mems oscillator (replaces quartz)

  • optical mems (VSCEL, micro projector)

  • microfluid (printer…)

  • biomems

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

Cheaper, better, smaller, response time, energy consumption …

+ systems-on-a-chip (SOC) = multi-functional, mass production …

(lab-on-a-chip)


Motion sensor

MEMS mirror

DLP micro-projector


gene chip


Micro-fluid chip


Top-down approach


Bottom-up approach


Self-organized (or self-assembled) PbSe dots (on PbEuTe)


Buckminster Fuller

Buckminsterfullerene

1996

Carbon nanotube as nanowire


STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscope)

1980, Binning and Rohrer

1986


Quantum corral made by 48 iron atoms (D. Eigler)


Nano-machine, molecular robot … etc


From sub-micron technology to nano-technology

-- problems of this century

Emergence of quantum effect

Quantum wire

Quantum dot

Self-assembly device

Need better grasp of the fundamental physics of materials

How long can we keep enjoying the amazing progress?

A powerful computer in turn helps us

explore the mystery of nature (high-Tc superconductor, DNA-coding, protein folding, drug design, better airplane… etc)


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