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Dept of Phys. M.C. Chang. Nano-technology in a nutshell. ENIAC circa 1947. Physical characteristics: 17,468 vacuum tubes; 1,500 relays 60,000 pounds; 16,200 cubic feet 174 kilowatts (233 horsepower) 5,000 addition/sec. (~ same as Intel 4004)

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Dept of Phys

M.C. Chang

Nano-technology in a nutshell


ENIAC circa 1947

Physical characteristics:

  • 17,468 vacuum tubes; 1,500 relays

  • 60,000 pounds; 16,200 cubic feet

  • 174 kilowatts (233 horsepower)

  • 5,000 addition/sec. (~ same as Intel 4004)

  • 5.25 MJoule/trajectory (~ fire an artillery shell)

Future prediction (Popular Mechanics, 1949):

  • 1,500 vacuum tubes; 10 kilowatts

  • 3,000 pounds (~ size of an automobile)


1956


Pentium 4

4.2 million transistors

The invention of IC

(1959, Kilby and Noyce)

Intel 4004 (1971)

2250 transistors

2000


A silicon wafer

A silicon single crystal



Moore’s Second Law

Cost of Fab

$50B

$40B

360B

$20B

$10B

$0B

1992

1995

1998

2001

2004

2007

2010

Year


  • mems microphone (PC, cellular phone)

  • mems accelerometer (safety bag, Wii, PC, camera, air guitar…)

  • other mems sensors (pressure, heat …)

  • mems oscillator (replaces quartz)

  • optical mems (VSCEL, micro projector)

  • microfluid (printer…)

  • biomems

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

Cheaper, better, smaller, response time, energy consumption …

+ systems-on-a-chip (SOC) = multi-functional, mass production …

(lab-on-a-chip)


Motion sensor

MEMS mirror

DLP micro-projector







Buckminster Fuller

Buckminsterfullerene

1996

Carbon nanotube as nanowire


STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscope)

1980, Binning and Rohrer

1986




From sub-micron technology to nano-technology

-- problems of this century

Emergence of quantum effect

Quantum wire

Quantum dot

Self-assembly device

Need better grasp of the fundamental physics of materials

How long can we keep enjoying the amazing progress?

A powerful computer in turn helps us

explore the mystery of nature (high-Tc superconductor, DNA-coding, protein folding, drug design, better airplane… etc)


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