Indirect Statement Just Keep Repeating: Verb in the Infinitive, Subject in the Accusative!!!. The rule: Verbs of saying, knowing, thinking or perceiving are followed by an infinitive, the subject of which is in the accusative case.
Just Keep Repeating:
Verb in the Infinitive,
Subject in the Accusative!!!
The rule:Verbs of saying, knowing, thinking or perceiving are followed by an infinitive, the subject of which is in the accusative case.
The infinitive can can be active or passive and its tense can be present, perfect, or future.
The tense of the infinitive isn't about real time. Instead, it tells us when the action occurred in comparison the the main verb-the one of saying, knowing, thinking or perceiving.
Caesar dixit puerum librum portare.
“Portare” is a present infinitive. This means that the action of carrying happened at the same times as the action of the introductory verb, i.e. it was existing when the main verb happened, hence, it was “present” at that time. The main verb is “dixit”.
It is perfect tense. It's done. It happened already.
That means the carrying is done too It happened when the saying happened. So. . .
Caesar said that the boy carried a book.
Marcus scit puerum librum portare.
Portare is present, so it happened whenever the main verb happened.
The main verb is scit (he knows). It is present tense. The knowing is happening in the present so the carrying is also happening in the present.
Marcus knows (right now!) that the boy carries (right now!) a book.
Dico eum fuisse bonum.
Fuisse is a perfect active infinitive. This means that the action was “perfected” or completed before the present tense main verb-I say.
I say (right now) that he was (past tense) good.
Dicam eum esse bonum.
Esse (to be) is present tense. That means that it is happening at the same times as the main verb.
The main verb is future tense (dicam-I will say). So, at the very time I will say happens, he is being good. It all happens at the same time in the future.
I will say that he is good.
Dixi eum futurum esse bonum
In this sentence the infinitive futurum esse is future tense. That means the 'being' will happen after the action of the main verb. Dixi is perfect tense. It has already happened. So in the past, a prediction was made about something that would happen in the future.
I said that he would be good.
For additional practice, the link above has excellent information!
Use it if you are still uncertain. When you feel confident, go to our Quia III page and find the indirect statement drills for today's date.