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Devil physics The baddest class on campus Pre-DP Physics. SC.912.P.12.2: Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time. Giancoli Chapter 2: Describing motion: kinematics in one dimension.

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giancoli chapter 2 describing motion kinematics in one dimension

SC.912.P.12.2: Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.

Giancoli Chapter 2: Describing motion: kinematics in one dimension

objectives
Objectives
  • Know the meaning of the terms mechanics, kinematics and dynamics
  • Know the difference between distance and displacement and how to measure each
  • Know the difference between average speed and average velocity
  • Understand the concept of instantaneous velocity
objectives1
Objectives
  • Calculate average speed for a given distance and time
  • Calculate average velocity for a given displacement and time
mechanics
Mechanics
  • The study of the motion of objects and the related concepts of force and energy.
  • Galileo Galilee (1564-1642)
  • Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
  • Building blocks of all areas of modern physics
mechanics1
Mechanics
  • Two major divisions:
    • Kinematics: description of how things move
    • Dynamics: force and why things move the way they do
  • Chapters 2 and 3 deal with kinematics
translational motion
Translational Motion
  • Objects that move without rotating
  • Moves along a straight-line path
  • One-dimensional motion
frame of reference
Frame of Reference
  • The point from which you are viewing something
  • The point from which you are measuring something
  • We normally place a set of coordinate axes (a coordinate plane) with the origin resting on the reference point
distance vs displacement
Distance vs. Displacement
  • Distance: measurement of the entire length travelled without respect to direction
  • Displacement: change in position of an object, or, how far the object is from its original position and in what direction
    • Includes both magnitude and direction
distance vs displacement1
Distance vs. Displacement
  • Pike’s Peak Marathon

Pikes Peak

14,110 ft

7,610 ft

1.44 mi

Manitou Springs

6,500 ft

distance vs displacement2
Distance vs. Displacement
  • Pike’s Peak Marathon

Distance: 14.1 mi

Pikes Peak

14,110 ft

7,610 ft

1.44 mi

Manitou Springs

6,500 ft

distance vs displacement3
Distance vs. Displacement
  • Pike’s Peak Marathon

Distance: 14.1 mi

Displacement

Pikes Peak

14,110 ft

7,610 ft

1.44 mi

θ

Manitou Springs

6,500 ft

scalar vs vector
Scalar vs. Vector

Distance: 14.1 mi

Displacement

Pikes Peak

14,110 ft

7,610 ft

1.44 mi

θ

Manitou Springs

6,500 ft

displacement
Displacement
  • “The change in position is equal to the second position minus the first position”
  • Example: You are standing on a number line at 23 and suffer a blow to the head. When you wake up, you are laying at -17. What was your displacement?
displacement1
Displacement
  • Example: You are standing on a number line at 23 and suffer a blow to the head. When you wake up, you are laying at -17. What was your displacement?
  • Your displacement is 40 to the left
speed
Speed
  • Distance traveled in a given time interval
  • Distance per unit time
  • 60 mph, 35 m/s
  • Vector or scalar?
average speed
Average Speed
  • Distance travelled divided by time elapsed
  • Avg. speed = distance travelled/time elapsed
average velocity
Average Velocity
  • Displacement divided by time elapsed
  • Avg. velocity = displacement/time elapsed
speed vs velocity
Speed vs. Velocity

Distance: 14.1 mi

Displacement

Pikes Peak

14,110 ft

7,610 ft

1.44 mi

θ

Manitou Springs

6,500 ft

speed vs velocity1
Speed vs. Velocity
  • Can the magnitude of the velocity ever be more than speed for any given timed movement of a body?
speed vs velocity2
Speed vs. Velocity
  • Can the magnitude of the velocity ever be more than speed for any given timed movement of a body?

Distance equals displacement

Distance is greater than or equal to displacement but never less than displacement

speed vs velocity3
Speed vs. Velocity
  • Can the magnitude of the velocity ever be more than speed for any given timed movement of a body?
  • Since distance is always greater than or equal to displacement
  • And since speed is distance/time
  • And since velocity is displacement/time
  • Speed will always be greater than or equal to velocity
instantaneous velocity
Instantaneous Velocity
  • Velocity at a split second of time
  • The average velocity of an infinitesimally short time interval
instantaneous velocity1
Instantaneous Velocity
  • Instantaneous speed will always equal the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity. Why?
instantaneous velocity2
Instantaneous Velocity
  • Instantaneous speed will always equal the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity. Why?
  • When distance/displacement become infinitesimally small, their difference also becomes infinitesimally small, approaching zero
objectives2
Objectives
  • Know the meaning of the terms mechanics, kinematics and dynamics
  • Know the difference between distance and displacement and how to measure each
  • Calculate average speed for a given distance and time
  • Calculate average velocity for a given displacement and time
objectives3
Objectives
  • Know the difference between average speed and average velocity
  • Understand the concept of instantaneous velocity
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