Chapter 21
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Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations. Types of Presentations. Impromptu Extemporaneous Scripted Memorized. Types of Audiences. Clients and customers Colleagues in your organization Fellow professionals at technical conferences The public. Preparing an Oral Presentation.

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Chapter 21

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Chapter 21

Chapter 21

Making Oral Presentations


Types of presentations

Types of Presentations

  • Impromptu

  • Extemporaneous

  • Scripted

  • Memorized

Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations


Types of audiences

Types of Audiences

  • Clients and customers

  • Colleagues in your organization

  • Fellow professionals at technical conferences

  • The public

Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations


Preparing an oral presentation

Preparing an Oral Presentation

  • Analyze the speaking situation.

  • Organize and develop the presentation.

  • Prepare the presentation graphics.

  • Choose effective language.

  • Rehearse the presentation.

Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations


Typical time allotment

Typical Time Allotment

TaskTime (20 minutes)

Introduction2

Body

First major point4

Second major point4

Third major point4

Conclusion2

Questions4

Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations


Asg 7 time allotment

Asg 7 Time Allotment

TaskTime (15 minutes)

Introduction3

Body

Results/Findings8

Conclusion2

Questions2

Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations


Introducing a presentation

Introducing a Presentation

  • Introduce yourself and your group.

  • State the title of your presentation.

  • Explain the purpose of the presentation.

  • State your main point.

  • Provide an advance organizer.

Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations


Concluding a presentation

Concluding a Presentation

  • Announce that you are concluding.

  • Summarize the main points.

  • Invite questions politely.

Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations


Presentation graphics

Presentation Graphics

  • More professional, persuasive, credible

  • Audiences remember graphic information better

  • Gives the audience a focus other than you!

Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations


Effective graphics

Effective Graphics

  • Visibility

    • 24 point type or larger

    • Compress sentences into brief phrases

    • 7 words/7 lines rule

  • Legibility

    • Clear lines for drawings/diagrams

    • Black on white shows best

    • Legible typefaces sans-serifs such as Arial or Helvetica

  • Simplicity

    • Graphic should represent one idea

  • Clarity

    • Point of the graphic should be clear

  • Correctness

Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations


Effective language for a presentation

Effective Language for a Presentation

  • Oral presentations are more challenging than writing a document because:

    • Listeners can't go back to listen again to something they didn't understand.

    • You must maintain your listeners' attention, even if they are hungry or tired or the room is too hot.

    • Use language to signal organization, summaries, transitions.

Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations


Use language to signal presentation elements

Use Language to Signal Presentation Elements

  • Advance organizers

  • Summaries

  • Transitions

  • Guidelines for Using Memorable Language

    • Involve the audience.

    • Refer to people, not to abstractions.

    • Use interesting facts, figures, and quotations.

Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations


Giving an oral presentation

Giving an Oral Presentation

  • Calm your nerves.

  • Use your voice effectively.

    • Volume, speed, pitch, articulation, fillers

  • Use your body effectively.

Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations


Calming your nerves

Calming Your Nerves

  • You are much more aware of your nervousness than the audience is.

  • Nervousness gives you energy and enthusiasm.

  • After a few minutes, your nervousness will pass.

  • Realize that you are prepared.

  • Realize that the audience is there to hear you, not to judge you.

  • Realize that your audience is made up of individual people who happen to be sitting in the same room.

Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations


Guidelines for facing an audience

Guidelines for Facing an Audience

  • Maintain eye contact.

  • Use natural gestures.

  • Don’t block the audience’s view of the screen.

  • Control the audience’s attention.

    Remember: the audience is more afraid of you than you are of them ;-}

Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations


Answering questions

Answering Questions

  • You’re unsure everyone heard the question.

  • You don’t understand the question.

  • You get a question that you have already answered in the presentation.

  • A belligerent member of the audience rejects your response and insists on restating his or her original point.

Chapter 21. Making Oral Presentations


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