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The Road to World War I. 1914-1918. By 1914, Europe had enjoyed a century of relative peace. International events, such as the first modern Olympic games in 1896 and the First Universal Peace Conference in 1899, were steps toward keeping the peace.

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By 1914, Europe had enjoyed a century of relative peace.

International events, such as the first modern Olympic games in 1896 and the First Universal Peace Conference in 1899, were steps toward keeping the peace.


However, while peace efforts were under way, powerful forces were pushing Europe towards war.


Leading causes to wwi
Leading causes to WWI forces were pushing Europe towards war.

  • M.A.I.N

    • M: Militarism

    • A: Alliances

    • I: Imperialism

    • N: Nationalism


Militarism
Militarism forces were pushing Europe towards war.

The glorification of the military.

As the world entered the 20th century, an arms race had begun.


Militarism1
Militarism forces were pushing Europe towards war.

By 1914, Germany had the greatest increase in military build up.

The fiercest rivalry at the time was between Britain and Germany in which both countries greatly expanded their navies.

The armies of France and Germany had more than doubled between 1870 and 1914.


Alliances
Alliances forces were pushing Europe towards war.

Alliances were intended to promote peace by creating powerful combinations that no one would dare attack.

Over time, countries throughout Europe made mutual defense agreements that would pull them into battle.

If one country was attacked, allied countries were bound to defend them.


Alliances1
Alliances forces were pushing Europe towards war.

  • Two huge alliances emerged:

    • The Triple Alliance

      • Italy, Austria-Hungary and Germany

      • Central Powers

    • The Triple Entente

      • France, Russia and Britain

      • Allies


Imperialism
Imperialism forces were pushing Europe towards war.

Before the war, Africa and parts of Asia were being fought for by different European powers.

The increasing competition and desire for greater empires led to an increase in tensions that helped push WWI.


Nationalism
Nationalism forces were pushing Europe towards war.

Before the war, each country was attempting to prove their dominance and power.

Germans were proud of their new empire’s military power and industrial leadership.


Nationalism1
Nationalism forces were pushing Europe towards war.

  • Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire feared rising nationalism.

    • These territories worried that nationalism might foster rebellion among the many minority populations within its empire.


Nationalism2
Nationalism forces were pushing Europe towards war.

  • Ottoman Empire felt threatened by nearby Balkan states such as, Serbia.

  • Many Serbians had a dream of a new South Slav state.

    • This would take territory away from both Austria-Hungary and Ottoman.


The Balkan Region forces were pushing Europe towards war.


Nationalism3
Nationalism forces were pushing Europe towards war.

In 1912, several Balkan states attacked Ottoman Turkey and succeeded in taking a large amount of land.

The bloody Balkan wars raised tensions.

By 1914, the Balkans were called the “powder keg of Europe”- a barrel of gunpowder that a tiny spark might cause to explode.


June 28 1914
June 28, 1914 forces were pushing Europe towards war.

GavriloPrincip

Archduke Franz-Ferdinand

Sarajevo, Capital of Bosnia

Assassination of Archduke Franz-Ferdinand heir of the Austrian empire by Serbian Terrorist GavriloPrincip.


“ The first (bullet) struck the wife of the Archduke, the Archduchess Sofia, in the abdomen… she died instantly.

The Second bullet struck the Archduke close to the heart. He uttered only one word “Sofia”- a call to his stricken wife. Then his head fell back and he collapsed. He died almost instantly.”

- BorijoveJevic, co-conspirator


Start of the war
Start of the War Archduchess Sofia, in the abdomen… she died instantly.

  • One month later: July 28, 1914

  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.

    • Domino Effect:

      • Russia, a Serbia ally then declares war on Austria-Hungary.

      • England and France jump in to help Serbia.

      • Germany promises unconditional support to Austria.


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