CONSISTING OF INTERPHASE ,MITOTIC PHASE, & CYTOKINESIS. The Cell Cycle. The Mitosis Puzzle. Lay blank sheets lengthwise to each other and tape them together. Write Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, & Telophase across the top of the sheet.
CONSISTING OF INTERPHASE ,MITOTIC PHASE, & CYTOKINESIS
The Cell Cycle
The Mitosis Puzzle
Lay blank sheets lengthwise to each other and tape them together.
Write Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, & Telophase across the top of the sheet.
Cut out the cell diagrams and tape/glue them across the top under the appropriate phase label.
Arrange each description beneath the appropriate picture to describe the cellular changes of that phase.
2 genetically identical daughter cells
Approximately 2 m of DNA to copy & be separated
Organize the following organisms in order from complex to simple
THIS CHROMOSOME IS A DUPLICATED CHROMOSOME WITH 4 CHROMOSOMAL ARMS
Form from the breakdown of microtubules of the cytoskeleton
Not present in plant cells
What is the significance of the fact that chromosomes condense before they are moved?
WHICH OF THESE WOULD YOU RATHER ORGANIZE WITHOUT BREAKING?
PROKARYOTES (BACTERIA & ARCHEA)
A protein is thought to anchor the DNA to specific spot on membrane
What Drives The Cell Cycle?
-Each event in the cycle
triggers the next.
What was concluded?
Molecules present in the cytoplasm of cells in the S or M phase control the progression of phases.
CELL CYCLE CONTROL SYSTEM
THE G1 CHECKPOINT
Protein Kinases & Cyclin
The fluctuating activity of MPF (M-phase-promoting factor)
MPF triggers the cell’s passage past the G2 checkpoint into M phase.
Starts in late S phase. It is protected from degradation so it accumulates
Cdk is recycled.
During anaphase, degradation terminates M phase
Example of a growth factor is PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor)
PDGF is required for the division of fibroblasts (a type of connective tissue)
Triggers a transduction pathway allowing the cells to pass the G1 checkpoint & divide.
An injury can instigate this growth factor to help heal a wound.
EXTERNAL FACTORS ON CELL DIVISION:
When do cells fail to divide?
Note: there are more than 50 growth factors
If essential nutrients are missing.
If growth factors ( protein released by certain cells to stimulate other cells to divide) are missing.
How does a cell divide “wrong”?
Let’s look at a cell gone wrong in the video Non disjunction or non segregation in Mitosis
LOSS OF CELL CYCLE CONTROLS
MALIGNANT VS BENIGN TUMOR
Have too few genetic & cellular changes to survive elsewhere.
Have genetic & cellular changes that enable the cells to spread to new tissues & impair functions of organs = cancer
What does it mean if the cancer has metastasized?
Differentiation of Human Cells
A zygote starts development by dividing over and over until you get a few dozen identical cells. These cells are embryonic stem cells.
What are stem cells?
What do you know about stem cell research?
WHAT SIDE DO YOU FALL ON???
LET’S READ AN ARTICLE!!!
Can give rise to any and all tissues in the body
they can differentiate into some, but not all, cell types.
TOTIPOTENT VS PLURIPOTENT VS MULTIPOTENT
Totipotent cells can form all the cell types in a body, plus the extra-embryonic, or placental cells.
Embryonic cells within the first couple of cell divisions
after fertilization are the only cells that are totipotent.
Pluripotent cells can give rise to all of the cell types that make up the body; embryonic stem cells are considered pluripotent.
Multipotentcells can develop into more than one cell type, but are more limited than pluripotent cells; adult stem cells and cord blood stem cells are considered multipotent
Stem Cells –video on youtube
To generate cultures of specific types of differentiated cells—heart muscle cells, blood cells, or nerve cells, for example—scientists try to control the differentiation of embryonic stem cells. They change the chemical composition of the culture medium, alter the surface of the culture dish, or modify the cells by inserting specific genes.