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Jemmy, Jehu Jones and the African American Experience in Colonial South Carolina Larry D. Watson Associate Professor of History South Carolina State University Adjunct Faculty, University of South Carolina. South Carolina Social Studies Standards.

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Jemmy, Jehu Jones and the African AmericanExperience in Colonial South CarolinaLarry D. WatsonAssociate Professor of HistorySouth Carolina State UniversityAdjunct Faculty, University of South Carolina


South carolina social studies standards
South Carolina Social Studies Standards

8-1.4 Explain the growth of the African American population during the

colonial period and the significance of African Americans in the

developing culture (e.g., Gullah) and economy of South Carolina,

including the origins of African American slaves, the growth of the

slave trade, the impact of population imbalance between African and

European Americans, and the Stono Rebellion and subsequent

laws to control the slave population.

3-4.1 Compare the conditions of daily life for various classes of people in

South Carolina, including the elite, the middle class, the lower class,

the independent farmers, and the free and the enslaved African

Americans.


South carolina social studies standards1
South Carolina Social Studies Standards

4-2.7 Explain how conflicts and cooperation among the Native Americans,

Europeans, and Africans influenced colonial events including the French

and Indian Wars, slave revolts, Native American wars, and trade.

4-3.6 Compare the daily life and roles of diverse groups of Americans

during and after the Revolutionary War, including roles taken by

women and African Americans such as Martha Washington, Mary

Ludwig Hays McCauley (Molly Pitcher), Abigail Adams, Crispus

Attucks, and Peter Salem. (H, P)


Slavery in colonial south carolina
Slavery in Colonial South Carolina

  • Slavery arrived in SC with the first settlers in 1670

  • By 1695, the African population numbered approximately 2,000 while the white population was somewhere between 2 and 4, 000

  • Some early concern with security

  • In 1697, Mr. Jonathan Amory was paid “out of the public money the sum of one hundred dollars, for one Negro who was yesterday condemned to be executed for a public example”


Slavery in colonial south carolina africans as a percentage of sc population
Slavery in Colonial South CarolinaAfricans as a percentage of SC population


Slavery in colonial south carolina1
Slavery in Colonial South Carolina

  • Several feeble attempts made to provide some system of regulation in 1686 and 1687

  • In 1690, Governor Seth Sothell worked toward codification, drawing heavily from the Barbadians codes

  • Specific punishments were prescribed, yet enforcement was lax


Slavery in colonial south carolina2
Slavery in Colonial South Carolina

  • Successful rice cultivation led to a significant increase in the African population after 1695

  • Governor Archdale thus implemented a more comprehensive code in 1696

  • This measure is often referred to as South Carolina’s first slave code


Slavery in colonial south carolina select slave codes
Slavery in Colonial South CarolinaSelect slave codes

  • Slaves prohibited from leaving plantations without tickets

  • Slave quarters to be searched once every two weeks

  • Illegal to trade in stolen goods with slaves

  • Slaves barred from unregulated use of firearms

  • Slaves could not go unattended to Charleston on holidays

  • Prescribed punishment for burglary, murder, arson, robbery

  • Master liable for crimes committed by slaves

  • Conspiracy to rebel, mutiny or actual rebellion is a capital offense

  • Conversion to Christianity no grounds for manumission


Slavery in colonial south carolina3
Slavery in Colonial South Carolina

  • Amendments made to codes in 1698, 1704, and 1708

  • Among the additions were:

    -Requirement to import 1 white for each 6 slaves

    -Provisions for using slaves during periods of hostility

    -Provisions for freeing slaves who serviced the colony

  • Further amendments or re-enactments were made in 1712, 1714, 1717, 1722, and 1735

    -Most important: Higher import duties on new Africans


Slavery in colonial south carolina4
Slavery in Colonial South Carolina

Although the slave codes had been in effect for

many years, most Carolinians appeared

Indifferent to them prompting the South Carolina

Gazette to publish them so “that no one may for

the future plead ignorance”

(South Carolina Gazette, May 4, 1734)


Slavery in colonial south carolina african white population in colonial south carolina
Slavery in Colonial South CarolinaAfrican/White Population in Colonial South Carolina


Slavery in colonial south carolina implications
Slavery in Colonial South Carolina:Implications

Lieutenant Governor William Bull to the Common

House in 1739:

“the desertion of our slaves is a matter of such

importance to this Province that I doubt not but you will

readily concur in opinion with me, that the most effectual

means ought to be used to discourage and prevent it for

the future”


Slavery in colonial south carolina implications1
Slavery in Colonial South Carolina:Implications

October, 1732 over 200 Negroes gathered “on the

Green” in Charleston. Having consumed too much

Alcohol, a fight broke out, and “a valuable Negro

belonging to Mrs Elbert’ was severely wounded”

(South Carolina Gazette, October 28, 1732)


Slavery in colonial south carolina implications2
Slavery in Colonial South Carolina:Implications

Other examples of public concern may be found in the following sources:

  • South Carolina Gazette

  • Journal of the Common House

  • South Carolina Upper House Journal

  • British Public Records Office

  • Colonial Office Papers

  • Journal of the Court of General Sessions

  • Journal of the Grand Council of South Carolina

  • Statutes at Large of the State of South Carolina


Jemmy
Jemmy

  • Jemmy (or Jonny or Cato), slave

  • Alleged leader of the largest slave rebellion in the United States colonial period


Jemmy the stono rebellion
Jemmy-The Stono Rebellion

  • Started on September 9, 1739 near Stono River-about 20 miles southwest of Charleston

  • Sunday morning when many whites would be in church and unarmed

  • 20+ enslaved Africans gathered

  • Mostly Angolans and some Congolese


Jemmy the stono rebellion1
Jemmy-The Stono Rebellion

  • Broke into a local store and acquired arms

  • 2 shopkeepers were killed, their heads left on front steps of store

  • Houses in the general vicinity were destroyed


Jemmy the stono rebellion2
Jemmy-The Stono Rebellion

  • Several other whites killed as slaves moved south, sparing an innkeeper who was reputed to be a “kind” master

  • Though still mid-morning, the group encamped and celebrated their “freedom”

  • By mid-day, their numbers reached 50+

  • At least one skirmish ensued with local whites, one of whom was the colonial Lt. Governor-William Bull


Jemmy the stono rebellion3
Jemmy-The Stono Rebellion

  • Late Sunday evening, a major fight broke out when armed whites caught up with them and some 44 slaves and 23 additional whites were killed

  • Although the major part of the rebellion was put down that day, it took nearly a month to bring the slave population under “control”


Jemmy his legacy
Jemmy-His Legacy

  • Demonstrated that the enslaved African community, though quite diverse, could unite in cause of freedom

  • Made colonial South Carolinians, who were not slave owners, painfully aware of its majority Black population

  • Increased the tension between Great Britain and Spain, since it was commonly believed that the Spanish in Florida encouraged black flight


Jemmy his legacy1
Jemmy- His Legacy

  • Convinced South Carolinians that the African population was not “docile” as many felt

  • Forced elected officials to enact and enforce new laws that would change slavery forever in the region and serve as a model for other southern states

  • The 1740 Slave Code became the model in other southern states


Jemmy his legac y
Jemmy-His Legacy

New Laws

  • All whites responsible for policing the African population

  • All white men required to carry guns

  • Slaves prohibited from assembling in certain numbers

  • Slaves prohibited from hiring themselves out


Jemmy his legac y1
Jemmy-His Legacy

New Laws

  • White immigration encouraged

  • Illegal to teach slaves to read

  • Restrictions set on importation of Blacks directly from Africa

  • Although more restrictive, the 1740 code still sought to protect slave owners’ investment in slaves


Colonial slavery
COLONIAL SLAVERY

S. C RUNAWAY STATUTE

DEFINITION:

A SLAVE ABOVE THE AGE OF 16 WHO

CONTINUES TO BE ABSENT FROM THE

OWNER FOR A SPACE OF 20-30 DAYS

AT ONE TIME


Colonial slavery1
COLONIAL SLAVERY

S. C RUNAWAY STATUTE

OFFENSEPUNISHMENT

1ST 40 LASHES

2ND BRANDED “R” (FACE)

3RD 40 LASHES & CROPPED EAR

4TH MALE: GELTED

FEMALE: WHIPPING, BRANDED “R” AND CROPPING

5TH LOST OF LEG OR LIFE


Free negro defined
Free Negro-Defined

JOHN H. FRANKLIN: QUASI-FREE

STATUS SLIGHTLY BETTER THAN A SLAVE

WORSE THAN POOREST WHITE

NEITHER SLAVE NOR FREE

VIEWED WITH DISTRUST AND SUSPICION

PRESENCE ALWAYS A MATTER OF CONCERN


Population united states
POPULATION-UNITED STATES

1790

NORTH 27,000

SOUTH 33,000

_____________________________________

TOTAL 60, 000

(SLAVES 700,000)


Population united states1
POPULATION-UNITED STATES

1820

FREE NEGROES 234,000

(SLAVES1,538,000)


Population united states2
POPULATION-UNITED STATES

1860

NORTH 237,000

SOUTH 251,000

_________________________

TOTAL 488,000 (2% OF US POP)

(SLAVES 3,954,000) (13% OF US POP)


Population south carolina
POPULATION-SOUTH CAROLINA

1670

  • South Carolina’s free Negro community

    dates back to the earliest settler when it

    became common practice to free slaves for cause

  • No accurate number is known, but the various slave codes make constant reference to them


Population south carolina1
POPULATION-SOUTH CAROLINA

“Any slave who shall…keep or take one or

more…enemies…shall for his reward, at the

charge of the public, have his freedom…”

“ An act for the enlisting of such trusty slaves as

Shall be thought serviceable to this Province in

time of alarms” 1708


Population south carolina2
POPULATION-SOUTH CAROLINA

1790

FREE NEGROES 1, 801

(SLAVES107, 094)


Population south carolina3
POPULATION-SOUTH CAROLINA

1830

FREE NEGROES 7, 7921

(SLAVES315, 401)


Population south carolina4
POPULATION-SOUTH CAROLINA

18001850

CHARLESTON 951 3,441

(SLAVES in 1860 415, 000)

58% of State population


Population sources
POPULATION-SOURCES

  • NATURAL REPRODUCTION

  • OFFSPRINGS OF MIXED PARENTAGE

  • RUNAWAYS

  • SLAVES PURCHASING THEIR OWN FREEDOM

  • REWARDS FOR SERVICE

  • CONSTITUTIONAL MANDATES

  • PERSONAL MANUMISSIONS


Life as a free negro the south
LIFE AS A FREE NEGRO-THE SOUTH

  • PROOF OF FREEDOM

  • COULD NOT HOLD PUBLIC OFFICE

  • SPONSORS REQUIREMENT

  • CURFEWS

  • BAN AGAINST ASSEMBLING


Quasi free negroes
QUASI FREE NEGROES

MUTUAL BENEFIT ORGANIZATIONS

(FOUND WHEREVER FREE NEGROES LIVED)

  • FREE AFRICAN SOCIETY (PHILADELPHIA)

  • SONS OF AFRICAN SOCIETY (BOSTON)

  • BROWN FELLOWSHIP SOCIETY (CHARLESTON)


Jehu jones free negro 1769 1833
Jehu Jones-Free Negro (1769-1833)

Born a slave in 1769 to Christopher Rogers

Learned to be a tailor

Purchased his freedom




Jehu jones family
Jehu Jones’ Family

Wife: Abigail

Children: Ann Deas, stepdaughter

Jehu, Jr.

Alexander

Edward


Jehu jones entrepreneur
Jehu Jones-Entrepreneur

Set up his own tailoring business

Invested in real estate in Charleston and surrounding areas

Established an inn at 33 Broad Street

Slave owner



Jehu jones pillar of the black community
Jehu Jones-”Pillar” of the Black Community

Operated in the highest social circles

Trustee for the Brown Fellowship Society


Impact of denmark vesey
Impact of Denmark Vesey

  • Vesey, a free Negro had purchased his freedom with money won in a street lottery

  • Conspiracy betrayed by other free negroes

  • State clamped down on free negro community


Impact of denmark vesey1
Impact of Denmark Vesey

  • Free male negroes over 15 required to have a white guardian

  • Any free negro who left the state could not return



Jehu jones final years
Jehu Jones-Final years

Abigail Jones died in New York

Jones died in 1833

Left an estate valued at $40,000

Inherited by 3 sons and stepdaughter


Jehu jones legacy
Jehu Jones-Legacy

Ann Deas (stepdaughter) named executrix of his will

Operated the inn on Broad Street for 12 years as Jones’ Establishment


Jehu jones his legacy ann deas
Jehu Jones-His Legacy-Ann Deas

Ann Deas (stepdaughter) named executrix of his will

Received a pardon for violating the 1823 ban

Operated the inn on Broad Street for 12 years as Jones’ Establishment

Eventually lost the property due to debt



Jehu jones his legacy jehu jones junior
Jehu Jones-His Legacy-Jehu Jones, Junior

Became a Lutheran minister

Moved to Philadelphia where he established a Lutheran church for Negroes

Disillusioned with status of blacks in north

Petitioned to be allowed to return





Jehu jones his legacy alexander jones
Jehu Jones-His Legacy: Alexander Jones

Alexander Jones remained in Charleston


Jehu jones his legacy edward jones
Jehu Jones-His Legacy: Edward Jones

Edward A. Jones became 1st black graduate of Amherst College, 1826

Graduated New Jersey Theological Seminary, 1829

Ordained an Episcopal minister

Emigrated to Sierra Leone where he founded a College (today the University of Sierra Leone)


Jemmy and jehu jones
Jemmy and Jehu Jones

SUMMARY STATEMENTS

  • The African American experience in colonial and early national South Carolina was complex

  • All enslaved African Americans did not share the same experience as slaves

  • The Free Negro experience was also equally as diverse


Jemmy and jehu jones1
Jemmy and Jehu Jones

SUMMARY STATEMENTS

  • All African Americans of the time were affected by the oppression of enslavement, whether slave or quasi-free

  • Under the circumstances, all African Americans struggle to resist the forces that relegated them to the bottom rungs of a slave dominated society


Sources
Sources

  • Jehu Jones: Free Black Entrepreneur

    S. C. Department of Archives and History

  • Jones: Time of Crisis, Time of Change

    S. C. Department of Archives and History

  • Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina

    Peter Wood


Sources1
Sources

  • Slave Culture in Eighteenth South Carolina and Virginia (disst)

    Phillip Morgan

  • South Carolina, A History

    Walter Edgar

  • The Quest for Order: Enforcing Slave Codes in Revolutionary South Carolina, 1760-1800 (disst)

    Larry D. Watson


Jemmy jehu jones and the african american experience in colonial south carolina

Jemmy, Jehu Jones and the African AmericanExperience in Colonial South Carolina


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