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Integrating Needs Analysis, Assessment & Evaluation of Training. Catherina Opperman & Marius Meyer 2009. FOCUS. D E S I G N. NEEDS ANALYSIS. ASSESSMENT. EVALUATION. T R A I N I N G. Skills Audit. STRATEGIC LEARNING ALIGNED TO TRAINING. Identify skills gaps:

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Integrating needs analysis assessment evaluation of training
Integrating Needs Analysis, Assessment & Evaluationof Training

Catherina Opperman & Marius Meyer

2009

www.roionline.co.za 2008


Focus
FOCUS

D

E

S

I

G

N

NEEDS ANALYSIS

ASSESSMENT

EVALUATION

T

R

A

I

N

I

N

G

Skills Audit

www.roionline.co.za 2008


Strategic learning aligned to training
STRATEGIC LEARNING ALIGNED TO TRAINING

Identify skills gaps:

  • Current gaps that need further development or are lacking

  • Future skills that the organisation

    will need in the next

    two to five years

www.roionline.co.za 2008


Strategic learning aligned to training1
STRATEGIC LEARNING ALIGNED TO TRAINING

Skills gaps & training needs:

  • Corporate training needs across entire organisation, example communication skills

  • Job-specific training needs specific to a particular area or position, example product knowledge or marketing skills

www.roionline.co.za 2008


Strategic learning aligned to training2
STRATEGIC LEARNING ALIGNED TO TRAINING

Identify strategic learning objectives from:

  • Business Plan

  • Workplace Skills Plan

  • Strategic HRD Plan

    Ensure that all job titles are represented on the Plan

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Strategic learning aligned to training3
STRATEGIC LEARNING ALIGNED TO TRAINING

Record and categorise these needs in a Strategic learning and development Plan:

Example:

  • BS: Business specific, product knowledge

  • IP: Interpersonal: communication skills

  • IT: computer skills: Excel

  • ML: Management & leadership skills

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Main elements of a job analysis
MAIN ELEMENTS OF A JOB ANALYSIS

  • Purpose of a job: job demands, responsibilities, accountability, activities, procedures, processes

  • Tasks: how often performed, sequence of tasks, equipment needed, how do tasks relate to other jobs continue

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Develop the job profile
DEVELOP THE JOB PROFILE

  • Focus on the job position, not the employee

    Divide the position into knowledge, skills & behaviours

    that are essential

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Methods to collect data
METHODS TO COLLECT DATA

  • Job interviews

  • Observing employees in the workplace

  • Interview individuals

  • Interview groups

  • Interview supervisors

    & technical specialists

  • Questionnaires

  • Self assessment questionnaires

www.roionline.co.za 2008


Job profile analysis performance management
JOB PROFILE ANALYSIS & PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

The next step is to link the job profile to performance management to assess specific competencies & address gaps that require training

  • Identify gaps, assess & evaluate by linking output requirements to the individual’s Performance management plan

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Terminology
TERMINOLOGY

Needs assessment refers to different types of analysis that are referred to as needs analysis:

  • Performance analysis

  • Gap analysis

  • Target population analysis

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Needs assessment
NEEDS ASSESSMENT

Needs assessment refers to the three elements of:

organisational-, person- and task analysis

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Different categories of training needs
DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF TRAINING NEEDS

  • Macro level: sector skills needs

  • Meso level: a single organisation

  • Micro level: individual needs

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Performance gaps
PERFORMANCE GAPS

Gaps exist as a result of:

  • Performance gaps in the way individuals work

  • Management gaps in the way people are managed

  • Organisation gaps in the manner in which organisations are designed

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Stakeholders in hrd assessment

Government

External

Management

Training committee

Trade unions

ETD providers

Critical interest groups

Community groups

Assessors

Moderators

Learners

Mentors/coaches

Customers

Past participants

Professional bodies

SDF

Business partners

Suppliers

STAKEHOLDERS IN HRD & ASSESSMENT

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The needs analysis process
THE NEEDS ANALYSIS PROCESS

Obtain data from two sources:

  • The business plan: key strategies & broad competencies

  • Skills of individual employees: assessed against the business plan will identify gaps in performance

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Report results and make recommendations
REPORT RESULTS AND MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS

Feedback will depend on the nature and extent of the issue/problem and could be done verbally or:

  • A comprehensive document with charts & graphs presented to top management

  • Recommendations to take into account:

    Training strategy, methods & costs

  • Be aware of the influence of culture & management buy-in to training

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Select or design a learning intervention
SELECT OR DESIGN A LEARNING INTERVENTION

If recommendations are accepted, use the identified needs for selecting or designing a learning intervention:

  • Learners need to be aware of the objectives of training related to the purpose and expected outcomes of learning activities:

  • What they should be able to know and do

  • Criteria that indicates acceptable level of performance

  • What criteria they will be assessed against

  • Scope of learning

www.roionline.co.za 2008


Designing a learning programme
DESIGNING A LEARNING PROGRAMME

Take the following into account:

  • Long term vision & mission of organisation

  • Strategic short term goals & strategies

  • Key skills competencies to meet those needs

  • Skills priorities of the organisation

  • Objectives of learningcontinue

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Designing a learning programme1
DESIGNING A LEARNING PROGRAMME

Take the following into account:

  • Learning outcomes

  • Assessment instruments

  • Assessment procedures

  • Numeracy & literacy levels

    of learners

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Other types of analysis
OTHER TYPES OF ANALYSIS

  • Organisation or situation analysis

  • Target population analysis

  • Task analysis

  • Skills & competency analysis

  • Skills Audit –

    Skills Gap Analysis (SGA)

www.roionline.co.za 2008


Other types of analysis task analysis
OTHER TYPES OF ANALYSIS:Task analysis

Task analysis form:

  • Five levels of function:

  • Job title

  • Specific duty

  • Tasks under each duty

  • Sub tasks

  • Knowledge

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Skills audit process
SKILLS AUDIT PROCESS

Steps in the Skills audit process:

1.Identify current & future priorities from the Business Plan; core work & future strategies

2. Identify essential skills for current & future business

3. Assess current skills level, use a rating scale, example: expert/satisfactory/limited/no experience

4. Identify action to address skills gap continue

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2 4 other types of analysis
2.4 OTHER TYPES OF ANALYSIS

Assessment methods:

  • Employee self assessment

  • 360 degree

  • Panel assessments

  • Formal assessment:

  • Diagnostic, formative, summative & recognition of prior learning (RPL)

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Competence
COMPETENCE

  • Perform whole work roles

  • Against standards of performance

  • Ability to work with your hands (skills), head (knowledge) & heart (attitude, values & behaviour)

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Assessment strategy
ASSESSMENT STRATEGY

  • Analysis of source documents (policy & plan)

  • Assessment context (environment/circumstances)

  • Assessment activities

  • Logistics

  • Scope: range of assessment

  • Instructions to assessors

    & candidates

  • Evidence requirements

  • Methods to gather evidence

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Overall assessment strategy
OVERALL ASSESSMENT STRATEGY

  • Plan for the assessment

  • Prepare the learner

  • Conduct assessment

  • Assess evidence & store it

  • Evaluate the process

  • Provide feedback

  • Review at regular intervals

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Competency based assessment
COMPETENCY-BASED ASSESSMENT

OBE is a learner-centred process:

  • What learners are to learn is clearly defined

  • Learners’ progress is based on demonstrated achievement

  • Learners’ needs are accommodated through multiple teaching and learning strategies and assessment tools

  • Each learner is provided the time and assistance to realise his/her potential

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Plan the assessment process
PLAN THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS

  • The candidate & assessor meet

  • Draw up an Assessment Plan

  • Conduct assessment

  • Evaluate the evidence

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Plan the assessment process1
PLAN THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS

  • Record the decision

  • Provide feedback

  • Plan reassessment

    if necessary

  • Certification

  • Record the results

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Plan the assessment process2
PLAN THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS

Stages of planning the assessment:

  • Initial planning

  • Pre-assessment meeting

    with learners

  • Draft an Assessment Plan

  • Prepare the candidates

  • Collect the evidence

  • Give feedback continue

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Plan the assessment process3
PLAN THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS

Special education needs examples:

  • Illiterate learners

  • Semi-literate learners

  • Innumerate learners

  • Physical disabled learners

  • Blind learners

  • Deaf learners

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Plan the assessment process4
PLAN THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS

  • Plan against contingencies that may arise

  • Obtain results of previous assessments

  • Design activities & instruments that are appropriate to the outcomes & resources

  • Assessment documentation is prepared for the recording of information continue

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Plan the assessment process5
PLAN THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS

  • Potential unfair barriers are identified and plans are made to address these barriers without compromising the validity of the assessment.

  • The required physical and human resources are to be ready and available for use, and logistical arrangements are confirmed continue

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Plan the assessment process6
PLAN THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS

  • Provision for moderation is made in accordance with relevant assessment policies and ETQA requirements.

  • A variety of assessment methods are described and compared i.t.o. strengths, weaknesses and applications

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Plan the assessment process7
PLAN THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS

  • The Appeals procedure

  • The re-assessment procedure

  • Follow up and support

  • The signatures of all the relevant parties & dates

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Plan the assessment process8
PLAN THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS

Prepare the candidates:

  • Use appropriate language level

  • Carry out checks to ensure candidates are ready for assessment

  • Ensure assessments are in line with policies

  • Provide opportunities for input from candidates

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Assessment practices
ASSESSMENT PRACTICES

Validation of assessment:

  • Verification of the process

  • Statistical analysis

  • Examination of the assessment instrument

  • Sampling of evidence of applied competence

  • Observation of processes

  • Site visits

  • Interviews

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Assessment practices1
ASSESSMENT PRACTICES

The principles of good assessment practice:

  • Fairness

  • Validity

  • Reliability

  • Practicability

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Assessment practices2
ASSESSMENT PRACTICES

Quality of evidence refers to ‘VACS’ criteria:

  • Valid

  • Authentic

  • Current

  • Sufficient

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Assessment practices3
ASSESSMENT PRACTICES

Types of evidence:

Refers to the method that will be used to collect evidence.

  • Will it be collected by directly observing the learning?

  • By making use of secondary sources of evidence? or

  • Historical evidence?

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Assessment practices4
ASSESSMENT PRACTICES

Appeals can be brought against:

  • Unfair assessments

  • Invalid assessments

  • Unreliable assessments

  • The assessors’ judgement; if considered biased

  • Inadequate expertise and experience of the assessor if it influenced the assessment decision

  • Unethical assessment practices

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Assessment practices5
ASSESSMENT PRACTICES

Guide and support learners:

  • Advise

  • Coach

  • Tutor

  • Counsel

  • Mentor continue

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Assessment instrument
ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT

Design the assessment instrument according to the assessment strategy that includes the following elements:

  • Determine the purpose of learning

  • Analyse the needs of learners

  • Decide on the learning objectives and outcomes

  • Select the content that will support the achievement of outcomes

  • Decide on the activities, methods, and media for learning and development

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Assessment process
ASSESSMENT PROCESS

  • Apply integrated assessment strategy

  • Include Policy documents

  • Provide for RPL, Reassessment, Special needs, language requirements

  • Identify the level of learner’s competence

  • Activities to include knowledge, skills & attitudes continue

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Assessment process1
ASSESSMENT PROCESS

  • Identify methods:

  • Knowledge

  • Observation

  • 3rd form of evidence

  • Design instruments:

  • Case study

  • Discussions

  • Portfolio continue

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Collect the evidence
COLLECT THE EVIDENCE

Identify the sources to collect evidence from:

  • Direct evidence

  • Indirect evidence

  • Historical evidence

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Marking memorandum
MARKING MEMORANDUM

Marking Memorandum is used to score the outcomes of assessment

Include:

  • Marks assigned per question

  • The total marks of the assignment & paper

  • The marking memorandum can be combined with model answers

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Purpose of evaluation
PURPOSE OF EVALUATION

  • Establish the value of learning

  • Decide to continue with a programme

  • Obtain info on how to improve future learning programmes

  • Improve delivery mechanisms to be more efficient and less costly

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What is evaluation
WHAT IS EVALUATION?

“The collection of, analysis, and interpretation of information about any aspect of a programme of education or training as part of a recognised process of judging its effectiveness, its efficiency, and any other outcomes it may have.”

(Mary Thorpe)

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Elements of an evaluation strategy
ELEMENTS OF AN EVALUATION STRATEGY

  • Background: purpose

  • The scope of evaluation: levels & activities

  • Output: measure for evaluation

  • Methodology: integration with other processes continue

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Elements of an evaluation strategy1
ELEMENTS OF AN EVALUATION STRATEGY

  • Work plan: roles & responsibilities

  • Evaluation instruments: questionnaires, etc.

  • Resources: human, technology, budget

  • Reporting & communication

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AREA OF MEASUREMENT EXAMPLES

  • Customer support

  • Systems

  • Product knowledge

  • Technology

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MEASUREMENT IMPACT

  • Quality – How good? Standards? Criteria?

  • Quantity – How many?

  • Cost - What are the cost implications? Savings?

  • Time – How quick / long? When? Faster?

What can you increase / decrease?

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Training costs
TRAINING COSTS

  • Gap analysis

  • Design & Development

  • Facilitation fees

  • Assessment

  • Evaluation

  • Fixed costs

  • Other costs

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Evaluation models
EVALUATION MODELS

  • Kirkpatrick

  • Phillips

  • Nadler

  • Brinkerhoff

  • Holton

  • Coetsee and Van Zyl

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Evaluation process data collection methods

Checklists

Questionnaires

Surveys

Needs Analysis

Performance Audit

Case studies

Focus groups continue

EVALUATION PROCESS: DATA COLLECTION METHODS

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Evaluation process data collection methods1

Meetings

Interviews

Observation

Role plays

Simulations

Work samples

EVALUATION PROCESS: DATA COLLECTION METHODS

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ROI FORMULA

R

R

R

R

ROI% = (benefits – costs) x 100

___________

costs

R

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Non training variables
NON-TRAINING VARIABLES

External influences that had an impact on the measurement are referred to as non-training variables.

External influences such as new systems and products, trends and business cycles pose threats to validity when measuring ROI.

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Non training variables1
NON-TRAINING VARIABLES

  • Organisational influences

  • Technology

  • Human influences

  • Other influences

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Reporting
REPORTING

  • Executive summary

  • Background of project

  • Purpose, intent and design of evaluation study

  • Results

  • Discussion

  • Costs and benefits

  • Conclusions,

    recommendations

    and options

www.roionline.co.za 2008


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