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Chapter 9. Meteorology. Section A, Weather Factors. Atmosphere Comprised of: Oxygen - 21% Nitrogen - 78% Other gases - 1% 99.9% of Atmosphere is within 30 miles. Section A, Weather Factors. Atmosphere is classified by thermal characteristics Troposphere Lowest level

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chapter 9

Chapter 9

Meteorology

section a weather factors
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Atmosphere
    • Comprised of:
      • Oxygen - 21%
      • Nitrogen - 78%
      • Other gases - 1%
    • 99.9% of Atmosphere is within 30 miles
section a weather factors1
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Atmosphere is classified by thermal characteristics
    • Troposphere
      • Lowest level
      • contains most weather
      • varies in altitude from 24,000’ to 50,000’ with about 36,000’ to 37,000’ in mid-latitudes
      • characterized by a decrease in temp with increase in altitude
section a weather factors2
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Tropopause
    • above troposphere
    • characterized by an abrupt change in temp lapse rate
    • About 36,000
  • Stratosphere
    • Severe thunderstorms may extend
    • Tops about 160,000’
section a weather factors3
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Atmospheric circulation
    • Weather changes are caused by uneven heating
    • Every process of weather is the result of or is accompanied by a heat exchange
    • The sun is directly over the Tropic of Cancer on June 21
section a weather factors4
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Pressure and wind patterns
    • Pressure
      • Highs - Center of high pressure, peak of hill
      • Lows - Center of low pressure, bowl
      • Cols - area between 2 highs, or lows
      • Ridges - elongated area of high pressure
      • Troughs - elongated area of low pressure
section a weather factors5
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Highs are usually associated with
    • Good visibility
    • Light winds
    • Few clouds
    • Good weather
    • Characterized by descending air
section a weather factors6
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Lows are usually associated with
    • precipitation
    • cloudiness
    • poor visibility
    • bad weather
    • turbulence
    • Wind
    • characterized by rising air
    • Example of lows are hurricanes and tornadoes
section a weather factors7
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Air tries to flow from high to low
    • At higher altitudes, Coriolis force makes the wind flow parallel with isobars
    • At lower altitudes, surface friction weakens Coriolis force and flows across the isobars
    • This airflow is wind
section a weather factors8
Section A, Weather Factors
  • In the northern hemisphere
    • Air flows counterclockwise around a low (cyclonic)
    • Air flows clockwise around a high (anticyclonic)
    • If one were to fly directly to the center of a low, the winds would come from the left and get stronger as one got closer
section a weather factors9
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Local wind patterns
    • Unequal heating of land and water
      • Land and sea breezes
    • Mountain and Valley breezes
      • On a larger scale these are Katabatic winds.
section a weather factors10
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Water
    • Solid - ice
    • Liquid - water
    • Gas - water vapor
      • Odorless
      • Colorless
    • Changes states by:
      • Evaporation, Sublimation, Condensation, Deposition, Freezing and Melting
section a weather factors11
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Relative Humidity
    • Measure of how much moisture is present for a a parcel of air at a temperature.
    • If a parcel of air has a RH of 100%, it is saturated. The temperature that it is at is called the dewpoint. If this parcel were cooled more, water vapor would clouds, fog, dew or frost
section a weather factors12
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Precipitation - condensation nuclei
    • Drizzle
    • Rain
    • Snow
    • Ice pellets
    • Hail
    • Ice crystals
section a weather factors13
Section A, Weather Factors
  • For a heavy rain to occur, clouds must be at least 4000’ thick.
  • Virga
  • Wet snow
  • Ice Pellets
section a weather factors14
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Stability
    • Dry adiabatic lapse rate
    • Saturated adiabatic lapse rate
  • Condensation Level
    • Temperature dew point spread by 4.4F or 2.5C
    • Condensation nuclei
    • nimbus
section a weather factors15
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Families of clouds
    • Low
    • Middle
    • High
    • Extensive vertical development
section a weather factors16
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Airmass
    • Continental
    • Maritime
    • Polar
    • Tropical
section a weather factors17
Section A, Weather Factors
  • Fronts
    • Cold
    • Warm
    • Stationary
    • Occluded
slide20

301. I21 COM

Every physical process of weather is accompanied by or is the result of

A. a pressure differential.

B. a heat exchange.

C. the movement of air.

slide21

301. I21 COM

Every physical process of weather is accompanied by or is the result of

B. a heat exchange.

slide22

302. I21 COM

What is the standard temperature at 10,000 feet?

A. +5 °C.

B. -5 °C.

C. -15 °C.

slide23

302. I21 COM

What is the standard temperature at 10,000 feet?

B. -5 °C.

slide24

304. I22 COM

What are the standard temperature and pressure values for sea level?

A. 15 °C and 29.92" Hg.

B. 15 °C and 29.92 Mb.

C. 59 °F and 1013.2" Hg.

slide25

304. I22 COM

What are the standard temperature and pressure values for sea level?

A. 15 °C and 29.92" Hg.

slide26

306. I23 COM

What causes wind?

A. Pressure differences.

B. Air mass modification

C. The Earth\'s rotation.

slide27

306. I23 COM

What causes wind?

A. Pressure differences.

slide28

307. I23 COM

In the Northern Hemisphere, the wind is deflected to the

A. left by Coriolis force.

B. right by Coriolis force.

C. right by surface friction.

slide29

307. I23 COM

In the Northern Hemisphere, the wind is deflected to the

B. right by Coriolis force.

slide30

308. I23 COM

  • Why does the wind have a tendency to flow parallel to the isobars above the friction level?
  • Friction of the air with the Earth deflects the air perpendicular to the pressure gradient.
  • Coriolis force acts perpendicular to a line connecting the highs and lows.
  • C.Coriolis force tends to counterbalance the horizontal pressure gradient.
slide31

308. I23 COM

Why does the wind have a tendency to flow parallel to the isobars above the friction level?

C.Coriolis force tends to counterbalance the horizontal pressure gradient.

slide32

309. I23 COM

The wind system associated with a low-pressure area in the Northern Hemisphere is

A. a cyclone and is caused by Coriolis force.

B. an anticyclone and is caused by Coriolis force.

C. an anticyclone and is caused by descending cold air.

slide33

309. I23 COM

The wind system associated with a low-pressure area in the Northern Hemisphere is

A. a cyclone and is caused by Coriolis force.

slide34

312. I23 COM

While flying cross-country, in the Northern Hemisphere, you experience a continuous left crosswind which is associated with a major wind system. This indicates that you

A. cannot determine weather conditions without knowing pressure changes.

B. are flying toward an area of generally unfavorable weather conditions.

C. have flown from an area of unfavorable weather conditions.

slide35

312. I23 COM

While flying cross-country, in the Northern Hemisphere, you experience a continuous left crosswind which is associated with a major wind system. This indicates that you

B. are flying toward an area of generally unfavorable weather conditions.

slide36

313. I23 COM

Which is true with respect to a high- or low-pressure system?

A. A high-pressure area or ridge is an area of descending air.

B. A low-pressure area or trough is an area of descending air.

C. A high-pressure area or ridge is an area of rising air.

slide37

313. I23 COM

Which is true with respect to a high- or low-pressure system?

A. A high-pressure area or ridge is an area of descending air.

slide38

314. I23 COM

When flying into a low-pressure area in the Northern Hemisphere, the wind direction and velocity will be from the

A. left and decreasing.

B. left and increasing.

C. right and decreasing.

slide39

314. I23 COM

When flying into a low-pressure area in the Northern Hemisphere, the wind direction and velocity will be from the

B. left and increasing.

slide40

317. I24 COM

Moisture is added to a parcel of air by

A.evaporation and sublimation

B.sublimation and condensation

C.evaporation and condensation

slide41

317. I24 COM

Moisture is added to a parcel of air by

A.evaporation and sublimation

slide42

325. I25 COM

What are the characteristics of stable air?

A. Good visibility; steady precipitation; stratus clouds.

B. Poor visibility; steady precipitation; stratus clouds.

C. Poor visibility; intermittent precipitation; cumulus clouds.

slide43

325. I25 COM

What are the characteristics of stable air?

B. Poor visibility; steady precipitation; stratus clouds.

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