POSTGANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC  NERVE ENDING
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POSTGANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC NERVE ENDING. Na. Norepinephrine (NE). Tyrosine. Dopa. Tyrosine. SYNTHESIS. DA. STORAGE. NE. RELEASE. Ca. ACTION. REUPTAKE. NET. DEGRADE. Dopamine (DA). NE  E. E. ADRENAL MEDULLA. COMT. PHARMACOLOGY OF SNS. According to chemistry.

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Tyrosine

POSTGANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC NERVE ENDING

Na

Norepinephrine (NE)

Tyrosine

Dopa

Tyrosine

SYNTHESIS

DA

STORAGE

NE

RELEASE

Ca

ACTION

REUPTAKE

NET

DEGRADE

Dopamine (DA)

NE  E

E

ADRENAL MEDULLA

COMT


Tyrosine

PHARMACOLOGY OF SNS


Tyrosine

According to chemistry

According to spectrum of action

According to mode of action

Adrenoceptor Blockers

Adrenolytics

Adrenergic Neuron Blockers Sympatholytics

Alpha & beta- adrenergic receptor blockers


Tyrosine

ADRENERGICS STIMULANTS [AGONISTS]

Direct Sympathomimetics

Indirect Sympathomimetics

Dual Sympathomimetics


Tyrosine

ADRENERGIC STIMULANTS

According to chemistry; Catecholamines; Natural; NE, E, Dopamine

Synthetic; Isoprenaline

Rapidly acting / Degraded by MOA & COMT

Sparse CNS effects / Parenterally administered

Non-Catecholamines; Ephedrine

Delayed action / Resist degradation by MOA

Prominant CNS effects / Orally administered

According to spectrum of action;

Non-Selective;

Norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, isoprenaline, ephedrine,…etc

Selective;

a1; Phenylephrine

a2; Clonidine

b1; Dobutamine

b2; Salbutamol


Tyrosine

ADRENERGIC STIMULANTS

According to mode of action;

Direct; Stimulate adrenergic receptors directly.

e.g. adrenaline, noraderanaline, dopamine, isoprenaline, phenylephrine, methoxamine, naphazoline, clonidine, dobutamine, salbutamol….etc

  • Indirect; Release of NE from presynaptic stores at adrenergic nerve terminals

  • e.g. amphetamine

  • Or Inhibit uptake its availability in synapse.

  • e.g. Cocaine & antidepressants

Dual; Direct and indirect stimulation of adrenergic receptors

e.g. ephedrine, pseudoephedrine


Tyrosine

ADRENERGICS AGONISTS

Direct Sympathomimetics


Tyrosine

ADRENERGIC STIMULANTS

DIRECT Acting Sympathomimetics

ADRENALINE

Naturally released from adrenal medulla  2ndry to stress, hunger, fear

Inactivated by intestinal enzymes, so given parentral & by inhalation

Acts on all ADR; b =/> a .

Pharmacological actions see physiological actions of the SNS

Heart  inotropic, chronotropic, dromotropic & lusiotropic (excitability)(b1)

BP  systolic (b1)/ diastolic   low dose (b2)&  high dose (a1)

Vascular SMC; constrict skin + peripheral (a1) / dilate coronary +skeletal (b2)

Non vascular SMC;

Lung  bronchiodilatation(b2)

GIT  motility (b2)/ contract sphincter (a1)

Bladder   detrusor m. (b2)/ contract trigone & sphincter (a1)

Pregnant uterus  tocolytic(b2)

Eye  mydriasis(a1) /  no effect on accommodation or intraocular P

Metabolism insulin (a2), glucagon (b2), liverglycogenolysis + sk. m. glycolysis(b2) /   adipose lipolysis(b3 /b2)

CNS little, headache, tremors & restlessness


Tyrosine

ADRENALINE

Indications

Used locally; as haemostatic (in epistaxsis) & as decongestant (a1) !!!

with local anesthetics  its absorption  toxicity & prolong action +  bleeding from incision

  • Used systemically for treatment of

  • Allergic reactions  drug of choice in anaphylactic shock as it is the physiological antagonist of histamine

  • Also in urticaria, angioneurotic edema & other hypersensitivity reactions due to   BP & cause vasoconstricton

  • In status asthmatics  given parentally  bronchodilatation(2) +  mucosal edema (a1)

    • N.B. Selective b2 are better in asthma by inhalation

  • In cardiac arrest  direct but now through central line

    • N.B. Selective b1 are better


Tyrosine

ADRENALINE

ADRs

Tachycardia, palpitation, arrhythmias, angina pains

Headache, weakness, tremors anxiety and restlessness.

Hypertension  cerebral hemorrhage and pulmonary edema.

Coldness of extremities  tissue necrosis and gangrene if extravasation

Nasal stuffiness; rebound congestion if used as decongestion

Contraindications

  • CHD, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease.

  • Hyperthyroidism.

  • Closed-angle glaucoma  may IOP


Tyrosine

ADRENERGIC STIMULANTS

Direct Acting Sympathomimetics

NOREPINEPHRINE = NORADRENALINE

It is naturally released from postganglionic adrenergic fibres

Not used much therapeutically  severe vasoconstriction

Acts on a > b1

Only administered IV - Not IM or Subcutaneous necrosis

It  BP [ systolic & diastolic]  reflex bradycardia(vagal stimulation)

 CO not much changed

Indications

Used systemically; hypotensive states (inspinal anesthesia, in septic shock, if fluid replacement and inotropics fail) !!!

Used topically; as a local haemostatic

with local anesthetic !?


Tyrosine

ADRENERGIC STIMULANTS

Direct Acting Sympathomimetics

ISOPRENALINE

It is synthetic ; show no presynaptic uptake nor

breakdown by MOA  longer action.Acts on b >> a

10 times > broncho-dilatation Was used by inhalation in acute asthma

Used in cardiac arrest but contraindicated in hyperthyroidism & congestive heart failure [CHD]

DOPAMINE

Heart b1  force

Kidney D1 vasodilatation

+ diuresis

It is a natural CNS transmitter.

Released from postganglionic

adrenergic fibres (> renal vessels)

Releases NE from postganglionic adrenergic fibres

Acts on D1 > b1 > a1

Vessels a1


Tyrosine

ADRENERGIC STIMULANTS

Direct Acting Sympathomimetics

DOPAMINE

On heart 

Inotropic, no chronotropic effect

On BP  According to dose;

first  D1

then  due to b1

followed by a1 effect

Given parentrally by infusion

Indications

It is the drug of choice in treatment of SHOCK septic, hypovolaemic (after fluid replacement), cardiogenic

It  BP & CO (b1), without causing renal impairment (D1)

Can be given in acute heart failure (HF) but better dobutamine


Tyrosine

ADRENERGIC STIMULANTS

Direct Acting Sympathomimetics

DOBUTAMINE

It is synthetic. Given IV.

Acts on b1 > b2 > a1

On heart  Inotropic with little chronotropic effect

On BP  No or little  in therapeutic dose

(b1 & b2 counterbalance + no a1 )

Indications

Given parentrally by infusion for short term management of cardiac decompensationafter cardiac surgery, in acute heart failure [AHF].

It is preferred because

it does not  oxygen demand


Tyrosine

ADRENERGIC STIMULANTS

Direct Acting Sympathomimetics

PHENYLPHERINE

It is synthetic, noncatecholamine.

Given orally & has prolonged duration of action.

Acts as selectivea1

  • MIDODRINE

Peaks in 20 min.

t½ 30 min.

On heart  reflex bradycardia

On BP   due to vasoconstriction (a1 )

Indications

In Hypotension

Systemically;Pressor agent in hypotensive states. Infusion

Terminate atrial tachycardia(reflex bradycardia)

Nasal decongestant. Oral

Topically; Local Haemostatic, with Local anesthesia.

Decongestant (nasal & ocular)

Mydriatic(no cycloplegia)


Tyrosine

ADRENERGIC STIMULANTS

Direct Acting Sympathomimetics

Nasal & Ocular Decongestants

PHENYLETHYLAMINES

IMIDAZOLINE

Phenylephrine

Methoxamine

Naphazoline

Oxymetazoline HCI (Afrin)

Xylometazoline HCI (Otrivine)

Pseudoephedrine

N.B.Brimonidine is an imidazoline a2 agonist used in glucoma

Used for treatment of nasal stuffiness

But can cause Rebound nasal stuffiness

It is synthetic, imidazoline

Given orally or as patch.

Acts selectively on presynaptica2 & on Imidazoline Receptors

 BP  by action on (a2 ) at nucleus tractussolitarius to  sympathetic outflow to heart & vessels. Antihypertensive agent

CLONIDINE


Tyrosine

ADRENERGIC STIMULANTS

Direct Acting Sympathomimetics

SALBUTAMOL

It is synthetic. Given orally, by inhalation or parentral.

Acts selectively on b2  on bronchi. Hardly effect on heart (b1)

Bronchodilater asthma & chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD)

N.B.Because t1/2 is 4 hrs longer acting preparations exist ; Salmeterol & Formoterol

Other selective b2 agonists :

Terbutaline; Bronchodilator & Tocolytic

Ritodrine; Tocolytic postpone premature labour

(labour that begins before the 37th week of gestation).


Tyrosine

ADRENERGICS STIMULANTS [AGONISTS]

Indirect Sympathomimetics


Tyrosine

ADRENERGIC STIMULANTS

INDIRECT Acting Sympathomimetics

AMPHETAMINE

It acts indirectly;

Releasing NE from adrenergic nerve endings > Blocking of its reuptake

Because it depletes vesicles from stored NE tachyphylaxsis

Absorbed orally, not destroyed by MAO, excreted mostly unchanged (by acidification of urine)

  • Acts on a& b similar to epinephrine but has CNS stimulant effects;

  • mental alertness, wakefulness, concentration & self-confidence / followed by depression & fatigue on continued use

  •  euphoria  causes its abuse…..

 Weight   appetite

 increase energy expenditure

No more used therapeutically  induces psychic & physical dependence and psychosis + the CVS side effects


Tyrosine

ADRENERGICS STIMULANTS [AGONISTS]

Dual Sympathomimetics


Tyrosine

ADRENERGIC STIMULANTS

DUAL Acting Sympathomimetics

EPHEDRINE

Plant alkaloid, synthetic, mixed sympathomimetic;

Prolonged direct action on receptors  receptor down regulation

Release NE from adrenergic nerve endings depletes stores

 tachyphylaxsis

Absorbed orally, not destroyed by MAO or COMT  prolonged action

Acts on a& b

+ > facilitation of neuromuscular transmission & retention of urine

+ has CNS stimulant effects (less than amphetamine)

No more therapeutically used  but is abused by athletes and prohibited during games.

Abuse in Athletes

Pseudoephedrine, dual acting < CNS & pressor effects compared to ephedrine. Used as nasal & ocular decongestant & in flue remedies.


Tyrosine

  • Agents specifically indicated for hypotension

  • Midodrine, Phenylephrine, Norepinephrine, Phenylpropanolamine

  • Agents specifically indicated for cardiogenicshockAHF

  • Dobutamine, Dopamine, Epinephrine

  • Agents specifically indicated for shock

  • Dopamine,Norepinephrine

    • Agents specifically indicated for cardiac arrest Dobutamine,Epinephrine,Norepinephrine

  • Agents specifically indicated for bronchial asthma

  • Salbutamol, Salmeterol, Formoterol, Terbutaline, Isoprenaline

  • Agents specifically indicated for premature labour

  • Ritodrine,Terbutaline

  • Agents specifically indicated for nasal decongestion

  • Pseudoephedrine, Naphazoline, Oxymetazoline, Phenylephrine, Xylometazoline

  • Agents specifically abused in sports Ephedrine, Amphetamine


Tyrosine

GOOD LUCK


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