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Evaluating the Technical Adequacy of FBAs and BIPs. Rose Iovannone, Ph.D., BCBA-D [email protected] . Objectives. Participants will: Describe a minimum of three essential features of effective Tier 3 (FBA/BIP) behavior processes in schools

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Evaluating the technical adequacy of fbas and bips

Evaluating the Technical Adequacy of FBAs and BIPs

Rose Iovannone, Ph.D., BCBA-D

[email protected]


Objectives
Objectives

  • Participants will:

    • Describe a minimum of three essential features of effective Tier 3 (FBA/BIP) behavior processes in schools

    • Describe the purpose of the Technical Adequacy evaluation tool

    • Apply a scoring rubric to case examples

    • Discuss further use of the evaluation in their settings


Agenda
Agenda

  • Essential Features of Tier 3 Behavior (FBA/BIPs)

  • Review of the Technical Adequacy Evaluation Tool and Rubric

  • Lunch

  • Practice scoring

  • Discussion of how to use the tool in the future

  • Action Plan



Or………. district/school/setting?


Current status of fba bip implementation in schools scott kamps 2007
Current Status of FBA/BIP Implementation in Schools (Scott & Kamps, 2007)

  • Although FBA in special education law since 1997, no systematic policies adopted at federal level

  • No guidance on key components (who should do FBAs, what features must be included, etc.)

  • Three primary flaws in school-setting use (Scott, Liaupsin, Nelson, & McIntyre, 2005).

    • Often used as reactive process

      • Loses power of prevention in developing interventions addressing minor behaviors before they get serious

    • “Expert” model overlooks valuable input gained from persons with whom student consistently interacts

    • Rigid, rigorous procedures not feasible in public school settings

  • In response, schools have “implemented a variety of inexact practices and procedures that have been loosely labeled as FBA, the majority of which are not tied to any solid evidence base. (Scott, Anderson, & Spaulding, 2008)


Context for fbas bips
Context for FBAs/BIPs

  • FBA/BIP—substantial evidence base

  • Behavior ‘gold’ standard for nearly 20 years

  • Systemic and skill issues impeding implementation

  • Wealth of literature providing evidence-basis

    • BUT, does not address the contextual fit of FBA in school culture (Scott & Kamps, 2007)

      • Educators’ willingness and ability to engage in process

      • Level and intensity of FBA necessary to result in improvements

  • Conceptually, FBA seen as tool for use in multi-tiered system of supports rather than separate process

    • If part of process, may change traditional definition of what and who is involved in FBA


Examples of the problem
Examples of the Problem

  • Forms vs. skills

    • “Let’s create new forms” common solution

  • Paperwork vs. implementation

  • General vs. individualized

  • Training vs. coaching

  • Expert vs. collaborative team model

  • Separate silos vs. integrated, consistent process

  • Legalities vs. problem-solving


The Top Twelve List of Things Needed at Tier 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

  • Multiple levels of Tier 3

  • Consistent, fluent process with problem solving-process framework

  • Collaborative teaming

  • Problem identification

  • Data collection, simplified

  • Linking hypothesis to the FBA

  • Linking BIP to hypothesis

  • Multi-component behavior intervention plan matched to classroom context

  • Task-analyzed strategies

  • Teacher and classroom coaching/support

  • Array of outcome measures (child-specific, teacher fidelity, social validity, alliance, fidelity of process, technical adequacy of products)

  • Maintenance (beyond “warranty”)


1 multiple levels of tier 3 fba
1. Multiple Levels of Tier 3 FBA 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

  • Three levels of Tier 3

  • Match the level of need to the student

    • Level 1: Classroom consultation (Facilitator and teacher)

      • Brief Prevent Teach Reinforce (PTR)

      • ERASE (Terry Scott)

      • Guess and Check (Cindy Anderson)

    • Level 2: Comprehensive support (e.g., PTR; team-based process)

    • Level 3: Wrap around with person-centered planning

  • Tier 3 most effective if Tiers 1 and 2 implemented with fidelity


2 consistent tier 3 process
2. Consistent Tier 3 Process 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

  • Standardized process for ALL students requiring FBAs/BIPs

  • Incorporates following features:

    • Identifying students needing Tier 3

    • Determining level of FBA support necessary to answer referral concern

    • Decision points

    • Timelines between FBA, BIP, Support, Follow-up

    • Data tracking system

    • Coaching and fidelity


2 consistent tier 3 process problem solving process
2. Consistent Tier 3 Process—Problem Solving Process 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

DEFINE THE PROBLEM

What is the behavior of concern? What do we want to see less of? What do we want the student to do more of?

PROBLEM ANALYSIS

Functional Behavior Assessment Hypothesis

EVALUATE

Is the plan effective? What are the next steps?

DEVELOP AND IMPLEMENT PLAN

Behavior strategies linked to hypothesis; coaching/support


3 collaborative teaming
3. Collaborative Teaming 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

  • Discontinue expert model – need proficient facilitator to guide team

  • Three levels of knowledge represented on teams

    • Knowledge of student

    • Knowledge of ABA principles

    • Knowledge of district/campus context

  • Consensus process established


4 problem identification
4. Problem Identification 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

  • Primary problem with many ineffective FBA/BIPs is that the problem is not clearly identified:

    • Too general

    • Not defined

    • Baseline data confirming problem absent

    • Often, several behaviors listed and unclear which behavior was the focus of the FBA

    • Not uncommon to see behaviors of concern “change” throughout one FBA/BIP

  • Need to identify both the replacement behavior to increase as well as problem behavior to decrease—consider broad categories including academic, social, behavior


Defining behaviors
Defining Behaviors 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

Nonexamples

Examples

Grabs clothing of peers by pinching and bunching fabric with his fist

Hits peers and adults on their bodies by slapping with hand (moderate intensity), pinching flesh with fingers (leaves mark), punching by making a fist with hand and making contact with peer/adult bodies

  • Grabs

  • Hits


5 simplify data collection
5. Simplify Data Collection 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

  • Progress monitoring must be:

    • Feasible

    • Reliable

    • Sensitive to change

    • Flexible to match individual

    • Standardized (comparable across schools/students/districts)

  • Direct Behavior Ratings (DBRs) offer a solution

    • Research supports their effectiveness (see Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman)

    • LEAP (Phil Strain)

    • Individualized Behavior Rating Scale (IBRST) used in PTR (Iovannone et al., in press).


Case Study- 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)Jeff: Behavior Rating Scale

01/15

Key: Disruption-tapping pencil, talk-outs, touching peers sitting around him, out of seat, walking around. Rate your perception of the number of times Jeff is performing disruptive behaviors. 5 = Terrible day; 4 = Bad day; 3 = So-so day; 2 = Good day; 1 = Fantastic day; Task Engagement-eyes on teacher, speaker, or work materials; interacting appropriately with work materials; raising hand to speak; letting peers work. Rate your perception of the percent of the day Jeff is engaged during independent work times. 5 = Fantastic day; 4 = Good day; 3 = So-so day; 2 = Bad day; 1 = Terrible day. Independent Work Completion-completing assigned activity during independent work time within timeline. Rate your perception of the percent of the day Jeff is engaged during independent work times. 5 = Fantastic day; 4 = Good day; 3 = So-so day; 2 = Bad day; 1 = Terrible day.


Brs psychometrics iovannone greenbaum wang kincaid dunlap in press
BRS Psychometrics ( 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)Iovannone, Greenbaum, Wang, Kincaid, & Dunlap, in press)

  • Kappa coefficients of:

    • Problem Behavior 1 (n = 105): .82

    • Problem Behavior 2 (n = 90) : .77

    • Appropriate Behavior 1 (n = 103): .65

    • Appropriate Behavior 2 (n = 56): .76


Other uses of brs
Other Uses of BRS 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

  • Systemic data tracking method for Tier 3

    • Sample system created by:

      • Cindy Anderson

      • School district in Florida


6 fba results in hypotheses
6. FBA Results in Hypotheses 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

  • Primary reason FBA is conducted

  • Hypothesis should be multi-component

    • When (antecedents) these contextual/environmental events are present…….

    • It is highly predicted that the behavior identified as the problem and focus of the FBA happens

    • As a result, the student:

      • Gets out of or away from activities, people, tangibles, sensory input, pain

      • Gets activities, people, tangibles, sensory input, pain attenuation

      • Confirmed by the consequences (what others do in response to the behavior) that typically occur

  • Method of organizing information

    • Competing behavior pathway

    • PTR Assessment Organization


Step 3 case study jeff assessment summary table of problem behavior
Step 3: Case Study – 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)JeffAssessment Summary Table of Problem Behavior

Disruptions


Step 3 case study jeff fba related to appropriate behavior skills to teach reinforcement
Step 3: Case Study – Jeff 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)FBA related to appropriate behavior; skills to teach; reinforcement

Prosocial


Jeff s hypotheses
Jeff’s Hypotheses 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

Inappropriate

Appropriate


7 linking the hypothesis to the bip
7 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review). Linking the Hypothesis to the BIP

  • Other primary purpose of conducting FBA

  • STOP generating list of general strategies

  • Each component of hypothesis generates an intervention

    • Antecedents modified and made irrelevant

    • Replacement behavior so that problem behavior is ineffective

    • Functional equivalent reinforcer so the problem behavior is inefficient


Jeff-matching hypothesis to interventions 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

Problem

Behavior

Disruptive

Maintaining

Consequences Reinforce

ESCAPE!!!

Setting Events

NONE

Prevention Triggering

Antecedents

Request to do a non-preferred task = writing

Replacement Behavior

(equivalent or incompatible)

Engage in Task

Modify trigger

Choices

Environmental support


8 multi component interventions matched to classroom context
8 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review). Multi-Component Interventions Matched to Classroom Context

  • Multi-component interventions include prevention, teaching and reinforcement strategies

  • Team/Teacher(s) select strategies that are

    • feasible

    • effective

    • likely be implemented


9 task analyzed strategies
9 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review). Task Analyzed Strategies

  • Forgotten art

  • Can’t just say “give choices”, “reinforce appropriate behavior”, etc., “student will comply”

  • Breaking down the interventions into sequence of steps

    • Allows teaching with precision

    • Allows assessment of teacher capacity

    • Provides foundation for training and for fidelity


Which one will more likely be consistently implemented
Which One Will More Likely be Consistently Implemented? 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

OR

BIP-Prevention Strategies

BIP-Prevention Strategies

Provide Choices: The teacher will provide Don with a choice prior to assigning him independent work in class. Choice options are: (a) materials to use for assignment; choice of leadership activities; (b) where to sit; (c) who to do the assignment with

Steps:

Immediately after giving the class the independent math assignment, go over to Don and present him with a choice option.

When presenting him with a choice, say “Don, where do you want to sit? X or X?”

After Don makes his choice, say, “Thanks for making a great choice” and release him to his choice.

  • Provide choices of where to sit


Which one will more likely be consistently implemented1
Which One Will More Likely Be Consistently Implemented? 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

BIP-TEACH Strategy

BIP-TEACH Strategy

Teach Don to ask for a break by using a break card during non-preferred activities. Don will be reminded to use his break cards immediately after giving the assignment for non-preferred activities and when precursor behaviors (putting pencil down, looking around the room, starting to talk to peers) observed.

Steps for initial instruction:

Step 1: Divide Don’s day into AM/PM.

Step 2: Give Don 10 break cards at the beginning of the day during homeroom and again right after lunch.

  • Teach Don to ask for a break from work or ask for help when he views the work as being too hard using the card system instead of refusing to do his work and disrupting the class.


Which one will more likely be consistently implemented2
Which One Will More Likely Be Consistently Implemented? 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

BIP-TEACH Strategy

BIP-TEACH Strategy (cont.)

Step 3: The first couple of days, review with Don how to use his break cards by saying, “Don, you will get to use break cards to take a short break from work. You can use these anytime you are doing seatwork. When you are working and think that you need to stop for 2 minutes, pick up a break card and put it on the corner of your desk. Raise your hand and wait quietly for me to see your break card. (model each step of this procedure). I’ll come over and collect it. You can then take a 2 minute break from work. Show me how you’ll use the break card.” Allow Don to practice/role play and give feedback. If he does it correctly, say “Great! You are doing it right.” If he does not do it correctly, say, “Almost. Watch me again. Now, your turn.”

  • Teach Don to ask for a break from work or ask for help when he views the work as being too hard using the card system instead of refusing to do his work and disrupting the class.


Which one will more likely be consistently implemented3
Which One Will More Likely Be Consistently Implemented? 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

BIP-TEACH Strategy

BIP-TEACH Strategy (continued)

Step 4: Explain how Don will be prompted to use his break cards.Say, “Don, this week you will get 10 break cards in the morning and 10 again after lunch. You can take breaks as long as you have a break card. I’ll remind you at first. If I see you starting to talk to peers or doing something other than your work, I’ll come over, point to your break card to remind you to use it. (model this step). I’ll also remind you about your break cards right after I give the assignment..

Step 5: Explain to Don how bonuses are earned by saying, “Here’s the best part. If you have at least one break card left over at the end of the morning, you get a bonus: A free “get out of a task” card. You can use this to get out of doing one problem or question on your paper during reading or social studies later that day or any day. If you have 2 break cards left, you get 2 “get out of a task” cards.”

  • Teach Don to ask for a break from work or ask for help when he views the work as being too hard using the card system instead of refusing to do his work and disrupting the class.


Which one will more likely be consistently implemented4
Which One Will More Likely Be Consistently Implemented? 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

BIP-TEACH Strategy

BIP-TEACH Strategy (continued)

Step 6: Explain to Don that he will get a bonus if he returns to his task before the timer goes off. “One more thing. If you go back to work before the timer goes off and stay at work for at least 3 minutes, you will earn a bonus break card for the afternoon/morning.”

Step 7: Summarize the plan by asking Don questions. Tell him that this will start the next day.

  • Teach Don to ask for a break from work or ask for help when he views the work as being too hard using the card system instead of refusing to do his work and disrupting the class.


Which one will more likely be consistently implemented5
Which One Will More Likely Be Consistently Implemented? 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

BIP-TEACH Strategy

BIP-TEACH Strategy (continued)

During Implementation (steps)

Step 1. Each morning and each afternoon, give Don the number of break cards (start with 10) for each time period.

Step 2. Briefly review with Don how to use break cards, take breaks, and get bonuses. “Remember how you use the break cards? Show me. Show me how you’ll take a break. What happens if you have break cards left?” (This step may be irrelevant after the first week.)

  • Teach Don to ask for a break from work or ask for help when he views the work as being too hard using the card system instead of refusing to do his work and disrupting the class.


Which one will more likely be consistently implemented6
Which One Will More Likely Be Consistently Implemented? 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

BIP-TEACH Strategy

BIP-TEACH Strategy (continued)

During Implementation (steps)

Step 3: Right after giving an independent assignment, go by Don’s desk (the first few days) and quietly remind him about his break cards. “Remember you can use a break card if you need to stop work for a couple of minutes.”

Step 4: If Don shows a precursor, off-task behavior (puts pencil down, looks around the room, starts talking to a peer), go over to Don, point to a break card and say, “It looks like you need a break. Show me how you take a break.”

  • Teach Don to ask for a break from work or ask for help when he views the work as being too hard using the card system instead of refusing to do his work and disrupting the class.


Which one will more likely be consistently implemented7
Which One Will More Likely Be Consistently Implemented? 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

BIP-REINFORCE Strategy

BIP-REINFORCE Strategy

Release to a break

Step 1: Each time Don puts a break card at the corner of his desk and raises his hand, immediately go over to Don and say, “You asked for a break. Thanks for letting me know. Take 2.”

Step 2: Set the timer for 2 minutes.

job in taking breaks the right way. I bet this afternoon/tomorrow morning, you might earn a bonus!”

  • Don will earn breaks and tokens when he shows appropriate behaviors. He will get positive praise for appropriate behaviors.


Which one will more likely be consistently implemented8
Which One Will More Likely Be Consistently Implemented? 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

BIP-REINFORCE Strategy

BIP-REINFORCE Strategy

(cont.)

Bonus break card

Step 1: Each time Don returns to work before the timer goes off and stays engaged for 5 minutes, provide him with a bonus break card for the next time section (either am or pm).

Step 2: Show Don the extra break card by holding it up and then putting it in a holder on your desk. Give him a thumbs-up and a smile each time he earns an extra break card.

  • Don will earn breaks and tokens when he shows appropriate behaviors. He will get positive praise for appropriate behaviors.


Which one will more likely be consistently implemented9
Which One Will More Likely Be Consistently Implemented? 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

BIP-REINFORCE Strategy

BIP-REINFORCE Strategy

(cont.)

Get out of work cards

Step 1: At the end of each AM/PM segment, go over to Don and count the number of break cards he has left.

Step 2: Provide him with a Get out of work card for each break card he has left and say “Fantastic work today. You earned X bonuses. You’re a rock star.”

Step 3: If he did not earn any Get out of work cards (because he has no break cards left, say, “You didn’t earn a bonus today, but you did a fantastic

  • Don will earn breaks and tokens when he shows appropriate behaviors. He will get positive praise for appropriate behaviors.


Which one will more likely be consistently implemented10
Which One Will More Likely Be Consistently Implemented? 3/Individualized Behavior Supports (Iovannone & Kincaid, in review)

BIP-Responding to problem behavior Strategy

BIP-Responding to problem behavior Strategy

Step 1. If Don begins to show the first sign of disengaged behavior (putting his pencil down), the teacher will immediately go over to Don, point to his break card, and say, “Need a break? Show me how to take a break.”

Step 2. As soon as Don uses a break card, release him to his break (as described in the reinforce strategy).

Step 3. If Don does not pick up his break card and put it at the corner of his desk, model it and say, “This is how you take a break. Take 2.”

  • If Don is disruptive, he will not earn tokens or he will have tokens taken away.


Fun quiz can you identify the replacement behavior being taught in this plan
Fun Quiz: Can you identify the replacement behavior being taught in this plan?

Select the best response related to the previous BIP strategy

The student is being taught the replacement skill of:

Compliance

Academic engagement

Completing tasks

Heck if I know

The plan says the student is being taught to complete tasks but the plan as described is teaching the student how to respond to a First Then auditory prompt.

  • Hypothesis: When Don is given a demand to do a non-preferred task that is lengthy, he is disruptive. As a result, he gets to avoid/delay the assignment and gets peer attention.

  • BIP-Replacement Behavior (verbatim replacement behavior plan from authentic FBA/BIP from an unnamed state—NOT PA )

  • Teach Don how to complete work first and then engage in other activities he enjoys through increased structure using the first-then format

    • “First finish your (non-preferred activity) assignment, then feel free to get out your book and read.”

    • Use this during study skills and during class when he has work to complete.

    • If Don begins to engage in disruptive behaviors, restate the “first-then” statement in a soft empathetic voice.


Jeff intervention plan prevent modifying the antecedents so that behavior does not happen
Jeff Intervention Plan: taught in this plan?Prevent-modifying the antecedents so that behavior does not happen


Jeff intervention plan prevent modifying the antecedents so that behavior does not happen1
Jeff Intervention Plan: taught in this plan?Prevent-modifying the antecedents so that behavior does not happen


Jeff Intervention Plan- taught in this plan?Teach a replacement behavior that will get the same outcome of the problem behavior


Jeff intervention plan reinforce the replacement behavior with the same function outcome
Jeff Intervention Plan- taught in this plan?Reinforce the replacement behavior with the same function/outcome


Jeff intervention plan
Jeff—Intervention Plan taught in this plan?


10 teacher and classroom coaching and support
10. Teacher and Classroom Coaching taught in this plan?and Support

  • Do not assume teacher/team knows how to implement plan

  • Schedule 30 minutes to review plan and go over steps

    • Overview/discussion

    • Model

    • Role Play

  • Problem-solve if teacher has difficulties

    • Modify plan

    • Choose different intervention

  • Make a plan to teach the student


Jeff coaching fidelity plan

Jeff Coaching/Fidelity Plan taught in this plan?


11 array of 0utcome measures
11. Array of 0utcome Measures taught in this plan?

  • Individualized Behavior Rating Scale

  • Teacher fidelity scores

  • Social validity- Did teacher like the process, are they likely to use strategies, would they do it again, etc.?

  • Alliance—Did they like you? Did they feel like you respected their input? Did you do a competent job as a consultant?

  • Fidelity of Tier 3 process –compliance?

  • Technical Adequacy of Products


Jeff s outcome data
Jeff’s outcome data taught in this plan?


Fidelity scores

Fidelity Scores taught in this plan?

1/5 100%

1/9 100%

1/28 100%

2/8 100%


Jeff brs data
Jeff taught in this plan?BRS Data


Jeff s team social validity ratings 1 no or minimal social validity 5 very great social validity
Jeff’s Team Social Validity Ratings (1 = no or minimal social validity; 5 = very great social validity)


Alliance scale 1 never 5 always
Alliance Scale (1 = Never; 5 = Always) social validity; 5 = very great social validity)


12 maintenance beyond warranty
12. Maintenance (beyond warranty) social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Dynamic process-not static

  • Decision making process based on data

  • Determine levels of support needed, fading, shaping, generalizing, extending, etc.


Steps for evaluating outcomes
Steps for Evaluating Outcomes social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Make sure you have both fidelity measures (self and/or observation scores) AND student outcomes (Behavior Rating Scale measures)

  • Decision rules

    • What constitutes adequate fidelity? 80%, 70%, something else?

    • What constitutes adequate student progress? (e.g., 3 or more consecutive ratings at or above goal line?)


Primary decisions
Primary Decisions social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • If Fidelity scores are inadequate, determine the reasons (intervention too difficult, not feasible, not described adequately….)

    • Retrain/coach the teacher/implementer

    • Modify the interventions so that they are feasible, simpler

    • Select different interventions that match the hypothesis

  • If fidelity is adequate, view student outcomes (decision contingent upon outcome trend)

    • Maintain intervention

    • Intensify intervention

    • Modify intervention

    • Fade intervention components

    • Shape behavior outcomes to become closer approximations of desired behavior

    • Expand the intervention (additional people, additional settings or routines)

    • Conduct another FBA if hypothesis is suspect, team has new data, or context has changed


Scenario please vote
Scenario—Please vote social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Fidelity outcomes are adequate

  • Student outcomes show behavior goals are not moving toward desired directions (e.g., problem behavior is at same or increased level, replacement behavior has not improved)

  • Decisions?

    • Address fidelity

    • Maintain intervention

    • Intensify intervention

    • Modify intervention

    • Fade intervention components

    • Shape behavior outcomes to become closer approximations of desired behavior

    • Expand the intervention (additional people, additional settings or routines)


Baseline Intervention social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

Fidelity Scores:

Self Assessments—10/9 = 100%, 10/12 = 90% , 10/17 = 94%, 10/19= 89%

Fidelity Observations—10/3 = 92%; 10/15 = 93%


Scenario
Scenario social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Same student outcomes

  • Fidelity outcomes inadequate

  • Decisions? Please Vote:

    • Address fidelity

    • Maintain intervention

    • Intensify intervention

    • Modify intervention

    • Fade intervention components

    • Shape behavior outcomes to become closer approximations of desired behavior

    • Expand the intervention (additional people, additional settings or routines)


Baseline Intervention social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

Fidelity Scores:

Self Assessments—10/9 = 79%, 10/12 = 82% , 10/17 = 74%, 10/19= 69%

Fidelity Observations—10/11 = 72%; 10/15 = 53%


Scenario1
Scenario social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Fidelity outcomes are adequate

  • Student outcomes show problem and appropriate behavior are worsening compared to baseline

  • Decisions? Please vote:

    • Address fidelity

    • Maintain intervention

    • Intensify intervention

    • Modify intervention

    • Fade intervention components

    • Shape behavior outcomes to become closer approximations of desired behavior

    • Expand the intervention (additional people, additional settings or routines)


Fidelity Scores: social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

Self Assessments—10/9 = 100%, 10/12 = 90% , 10/17 = 94%, 10/19= 89%

Fidelity Observations—10/3 = 92%; 10/15 = 93%


Scenario2
Scenario social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Same student outcomes

  • Fidelity outcomes inadequate

  • Decisions? Please vote:

    • Address fidelity

    • Maintain intervention

    • Intensify intervention

    • Modify intervention

    • Fade intervention components

    • Shape behavior outcomes to become closer approximations of desired behavior

    • Expand the intervention (additional people, additional settings or routines)


Fidelity Scores: social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

Self Assessments—10/9 = 79%, 10/12 = 82% , 10/17 = 74%, 10/19= 69%

Fidelity Observations—10/11 = 72%; 10/15 = 53%


Ptr publications
PTR Publications social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • PTR Manual

    • Dunlap, G., Iovannone, R., Kincaid, D., Wilson, K., Christiansen, K., Strain, P., & English, C., 2010. Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: The School-Based Model of Individualized Positive Behavior Support. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

  • Journal Articles

    • Iovannone, R., Greenbaum, P., Wei, W., Kincaid, D., Dunlap, G., & Strain, P. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of a tertiary behavior intervention for students with problem behaviors: Preliminary outcomes. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 17, 213-225.

    • Dunlap, G., Iovannone, R., Wilson, K., Strain, P., & Kincaid, D. (2010). Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: A standardized model of school-based behavioral intervention. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 9-22

    • Strain, P. S., Wilson, K., & Dunlap, G. (2011). Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: Addressing problem behaviors of students with autism in general education classroom. Behavior Disorders, 36, 160-171.

    • Iovannone, R., Greenbaum, P., Wei, W., Kincaid, D., & Dunlap, G. (in press). Reliability of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale-Strategy for Teachers (IBRS-ST): A Progress Monitoring Tool. Assessment for Effective Intervention.

    • Sears, K. M., Blair, K. S. C., Iovannone, R. & Crosland, K., (in press). Using the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce model with families of young children with ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities.


Technical adequacy
Technical adequacy social validity; 5 = very great social validity)


Technical adequacy research
Technical Adequacy Research social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Recent studies conducted exploring technical adequacy of FBAs

    • Blood, E., & Neel, R. S. (2007). From FBA to implementation: A look at what is actually being delivered. Education and Treatment of Children, 30, 67-80.

      • Evaluated FBAs/BIPs of 43 students in self-contained classrooms for EBD (K-12) in one school district in western US

      • Reviewed FBAs/BIPs for inclusion of essential components (listed in article)

      • Interviewed 6 EBD teachers about use of FBA/BIPs in planning and developing programs (e.g., “what is included on the plan?”, “How is plan implemented?” “How do you show progress?”

    • Van Acker, R., Boreson, L., Gable, R. A., & Potterton, T. (2005). Are we on the right course? Lessons learned about current FBA/BIP practices in schools. Journal of Behavioral Education, 14, 35-56.

      • 71 completed FBA/BIPs submitted for review from school districts across midwest state

      • Rating scale developed for analysis (see article for scale)


Some results of technical adequacy research
Some Results of Technical Adequacy Research social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Teaming issues:

    • Teacher and other input not included

  • Identifying behaviors

    • Target behaviors were missing or inadequately defined

  • Match of FBA to Hypothesis

    • Attempt to assign one function/hypothesis to group of target behaviors (e.g., treated all behaviors as one behavior—collected data and developed interventions)

    • Hypothesis statements missing or inadequate

  • Behavior intervention plan development

    • Behavior strategies not linked with hypothesis statement(s)

    • Predominant type of BIP “hierarchical stock list of possible positive and negative consequences” that follow any problem behavior.

    • Replacement behaviors not included

    • Van Acker—46% FBA/BIPs reviewed only included aversive strategies


Some results of technical adequacy research1
Some Results of Technical Adequacy Research social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Follow-up

    • Lack of follow-up support for monitoring and evaluating plan including fidelity

    • No follow-through on next steps (promote and check maintenance and generalization of behavior change)

  • Blood interviews with teachers

    • None was able to identify behavior goals nor describe behavior intervention

    • Did not use FBA/BIPs in development of behavior interventions


Purpose uses of our tool
Purpose/Uses of Our Tool social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Determine the technical adequacy of FBA/BIPs and establish baseline

    • District

    • Campus/School

    • Individual

  • Second step in requesting Tier 3 technical assistance from Florida PBS/RTI:B Project (Interview of Tier 3 process first step)

  • Report generated to guide action planning

  • Evaluate for indicator support (e.g., restraint/seclusion)


Development of tool
Development of Tool social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Review of literature to identify essential components for adequate FBA/BIPs

  • Original measure included 24 items (FBA/BIP)

  • Edited to 20 items

  • Sent out to three national experts (Terry Scott, Cindy Anderson, Glen Dunlap) to review

    • Is the item essential?

    • Is the item worded clearly?

  • Final tool contains 18 items (9 FBA/9 BIP)

  • Scores range from 0-2 for each item.


Sample graphs tables generated by tool
Sample graphs/tables generated by tool social validity; 5 = very great social validity)


Sample graphs baseline post fba
Sample Graphs—Baseline/post FBA social validity; 5 = very great social validity)


Sample graphs bip baseline post
Sample Graphs BIP Baseline/Post social validity; 5 = very great social validity)


Sample graph total fba bip baseline post
Sample Graph: Total FBA/BIP Baseline/Post social validity; 5 = very great social validity)


Sample tables baseline post
Sample Tables Baseline/Post social validity; 5 = very great social validity)


Sample tables baseline post comparison
Sample Tables: Baseline/Post comparison social validity; 5 = very great social validity)


Sample products
Sample Products social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Report

  • Action plan


Practice time
Practice time social validity; 5 = very great social validity)


Before practicing
Before practicing…. social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Review of tool items

    • Evaluation

    • Scoring guide


Practice time1
Practice Time social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Team up with others

  • Try scoring the sample completed FBA/BIP given to you with the evaluation tool

  • Come to consensus on the scores

  • Debrief

    • What did you like?

    • What did you dislike?

    • What was easy?

    • What was difficult?

    • What questions do you still have?


Evaluating your district s fba bips
Evaluating Your District’s FBA/BIPs social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Within your district team, evaluate the technical adequacy of your district’s FBA/BIPs brought to the training

  • Be ready to debrief

    • You do NOT need to tell anyone your scores

    • Discuss anything you learned or didn’t learn in evaluating technical adequacy

  • Use outcomes to start developing strategic action plan steps to achieve district goals.


Next steps
Next Steps social validity; 5 = very great social validity)

  • Action Planning

    • What will you be doing in your district to improve your FBA/BIPs?


Questions
Questions? social validity; 5 = very great social validity)


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