A guide to unix using linux fourth edition
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A Guide to Unix Using Linux Fourth Edition. Chapter 11 The X Window System. Objectives. Describe the X Window System and its client/server model Understand the role of the Window Manager Understand desktops such as GNOME and KDE Start the X Window System. Objectives (continued).

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A Guide to Unix Using Linux Fourth Edition

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A guide to unix using linux fourth edition

A Guide to Unix Using Linux Fourth Edition

Chapter 11

The X Window System


Objectives

Objectives

  • Describe the X Window System and its client/server model

  • Understand the role of the Window Manager

  • Understand desktops such as GNOME and KDE

  • Start the X Window System

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Objectives continued

Objectives (continued)

  • Interact with the X Window System and use its components

  • Use Nautilus and Konqueror for file management

  • Run an application

  • Configure a desktop

  • Shut down a system from the desktop

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


What is the x window system

What is the X Window System?

  • X Window System: GUI that runs on Linux and many UNIX operating systems

    • Two popular desktops:

      • GNOME

      • KDE

    • Originally developed at MIT

      • Currently in its eleventh version: X11

      • Current release is R7.2.0 (X11R7)

    • XFree86: free version of X11 that was ported from non-PC-based UNIX computers to run on PCs

      • Compatible with Linux

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


A guide to unix using linux fourth edition

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


A guide to unix using linux fourth edition

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


X window clients and servers

X Window Clients and Servers

  • Use X Window System to run programs stored:

    • On your local computer

    • Over a network

  • X Window System uses a client/server model:

    • X server: underlying desktop system from which you run a program

    • X client: system that hosts and executes the program

  • X server approaches for Windows-based PCs:

    • X-Win32, X-Win32 Flash, and Exceed

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Using window managers

Using Window Managers

  • X Window System is layered and built from components

    • At top layer is the Window Manager

      • Window Manager: controls how windows appear and how users control them

  • Many Window Managers have been developed

    • Most of them are available for free

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


A guide to unix using linux fourth edition

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Using a desktop

Using a Desktop

  • Desktop: provides GUI appearance, software applications, and other resources that you use

    • Works hand-in-hand with a Window Manager

    • Enables you to create and place icons in your screen’s workspace

      • Is customizable

    • Most popular UNIX/Linux desktops:

      • GNOME

      • KDE

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Using gnome

Using GNOME

  • GNOME: GNU Network Object Model Environment

    • Product of the GNU Project

    • Desktop environment that is used along with a Window Manager

    • Installed by default in Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux

    • Very user-friendly

    • Very popular

    • Compatible with X11

    • Compatible with a variety of Window Managers

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Using kde

Using KDE

  • KDE is an alternative to GNOME

    • Can be installed along with GNOME

    • Is more popular internationally than GNOME

    • Offers a broader range of drag-and-drop capabilities

    • Intended to provide UNIX/Linux users with a graphical point-and-click experience

    • Compatible with X11

    • Compatible with a variety of Window Managers

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Starting the x window system

Starting the X Window System

  • startx is intended for a computer or login session that does not automatically boot into X Window

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Configuring linux to automatically start the x window system

Configuring Linux to Automatically Start the X Window System

  • To change runlevel, modify /etc/inittab

    • From: id:3:initdefault:

    • To: id:5:initdefault:

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Interacting with the x window system using gnome

Interacting with the X Window System Using GNOME

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Interacting with windows

Interacting with Windows

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


More about the window menu button

More About the Window Menu Button

  • Options of Window Menu button (when clicked):

    • Minimize (and Maximize/Unmaximize)

    • On Top

    • Move

    • Resize

    • Close

    • Always on Visible Workspace/Only on This Workspace

    • Move to Workspace Right (and Left)

    • Move to Another Workspace

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Interacting with the panel

Interacting with the Panel

  • The Panel in Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux appears, by default, at the top of the desktop

    • Another Panel is at the bottom

    • Top panel:

    • Bottom panel:

      • On left side: button to hide all windows

      • On right side: access to the four workspaces

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Interacting with the panel continued

Interacting with the Panel (continued)

  • Applications menu:

    • Submenus and programs that you can open

  • Places menu has options to:

    • Open your home folder

    • Access items on desktop

    • Open storage devices and file systems on computer

    • Create a CD/DVD

    • Access network servers and resources

    • Perform a fast search for a specific item

    • Access recently opened documents

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Interacting with the panel continued1

Interacting with the Panel (continued)

  • System menu options:

    • A submenu for setting preferences on the computer

    • A submenu for administering the computer

    • An option to obtain help

    • An option to find out about GNOME

    • An option to learn more about the OS

    • An option to lock screen

    • An option to log off

    • An option to suspend the computer’s operation

    • An option to shut down the computer

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Using nautilus

Using Nautilus

  • Nautilus: GNOME’s file management tool

  • Used to:

    • View files and folders

    • Create new folders

    • Delete and move files and folders

    • Copy and paste files and folders

    • Configure permissions

    • Open a file or start a program

    • Access the Internet

    • Set a bookmark (to a file, folder, or Internet location)

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Using nautilus continued

Using Nautilus (continued)

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Configuring the desktop

Configuring the Desktop

  • You can customize many aspects of the X Window System

  • Examples:

    • Change background image

    • Specify screensaver

    • Configure items on the Panel

    • Add applets to the Panel

    • Add a new Panel to desktop

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Changing the background

Changing the Background

  • Background: desktop area behind all windows and icons

    • Is customizable:

      • Can change color

      • Can specify a wallpaper to be used as background

    • To change background in GNOME:

      • Right-click a blank area in the desktop

      • Select Change Desktop Background

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Changing the screensaver

Changing the Screensaver

  • Use screensaver to deter unauthorized use of a server or workstation by requiring a password

  • In Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:

    • Click System menu

    • Point to Preferences

    • Click Screensaver

  • In SUSE:

    • Click Computer menu

    • Click Control Center

    • Click Screensaver

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Configuring the panel

Configuring the Panel

  • GNOME Panel can be configured in several ways:

    • Add an icon or applet to the Panel

    • Rearrange placement of icons

    • Add programs you have written

    • Move the Panel to another location:

      • Move pointer to a blank area of Panel

      • Drag and drop Panel to another location

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Configuring the panel continued

Configuring the Panel (continued)

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Adding a menu to the panel

Adding a Menu to the Panel

  • You can add a menu within the Applications or Computer menu directly to the Panel

  • Example:

    • Put the Office menu on the Panel

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Adding a new panel

Adding a New Panel

  • General steps:

    • Right-click an open space on an existing Panel

    • Click New Panel

    • If you want to change the location of the new Panel, click and drag it to the new location

    • Right-click the new Panel, click Add to Panel, and select what you want to place on the Panel

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Shutting down from the gnome desktop

Shutting Down from the GNOME Desktop

  • Proper shutdown is important to ensure that all files are closed and to protect file system integrity

  • In Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:

    • Click System menu

    • Click Shut Down

  • In SUSE:

    • Click Computer menu

    • Click Log Out

    • Click Shut down

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Interacting with the x window system using kde

Interacting with the X Window System Using KDE

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Interacting with konqueror

Interacting with Konqueror

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Interacting with kicker

Interacting with Kicker

  • Kicker is similar to the Panel in GNOME

  • Can be customized in several ways:

    • Relocate it, add/remove applets, add panels, etc.

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Configuring the kde desktop

Configuring the KDE Desktop

  • You can customize the KDE desktop in X Window

  • Examples:

    • Change the desktop background

    • Specify a screensaver

    • Create additional desktops

      • Beyond the four set up by default

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Changing the background in kde

Changing the Background in KDE

  • Right-click unused desktop area  Configure Desktop

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Configuring the screensaver

Configuring the Screensaver

  • KDE offers a huge selection of screensavers

  • Use Configure – KDesktop utility to choose a screensaver

    • For security reasons, set it up so that it requires a password after it starts

  • Use Screen Saver option to set up your screensaver preferences

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Configuring additional desktops

Configuring Additional Desktops

  • KDE is set by default to enable four desktops

    • Accessible through Kicker

    • Configurable to fewer than four or up to 20 desktops

      • Use the Configure – KDesktop utility

      • Then, click Multiple Desktops in side pane

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Shutting down from the kde desktop

Shutting Down from the KDE Desktop

  • Proper shutdown of KDE desktop is important

    • Ensures all of your open program and system files are properly closed and kept intact

  • General steps:

    • Click the K Menu

    • Click Log Out

    • Click End Current Session or Turn Off Computer

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Openoffice org and open source software

OpenOffice.org and Open Source Software

  • OpenOffice.org: suite of office productivity software

    • Open source software

    • Included in many UNIX/Linux distributions

    • Also available for Windows and Mac OS systems

    • Program elements include:

      • Writer

      • Calc

      • Impress

      • Draw

      • Math

      • Base

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Summary

Summary

  • X Window System runs on UNIX/Linux systems

    • Window Manager: layer with which user interacts

    • Use startx to start the X Window System

      • Modify /etc/inittab to have it start automatically

  • GNOME environment is a popular desktop

    • The Panel provides access to menus, icons, Workspace Switcher, and other utilities

    • Nautilus is a graphical application for managing directories/files and for navigating the file system

    • Desktop background and other elements are customizable

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Summary continued

Summary (continued)

  • KDE is another popular desktop

    • Similar in functionality to GNOME

    • Major components include:

      • Icons

      • Kicker

        • Similar to the Panel in GNOME

      • Windows

      • Desktop area on which to work

    • Konqueror: application for managing files/folders

    • Desktop background, screensaver, and other features are customizable

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


Command summary

Command Summary

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition


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