AIM:  How do Compounds effect organisms?
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AIM: How do Compounds effect organisms?. Do NOW: What does this picture mean to you?. How are compounds classified?. There are two categories of compounds:. Organic Inorganic. Substances that are formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements. Compounds.

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AIM: How do Compounds effect organisms?

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AIM: How do Compounds effect organisms?


Do NOW:

What does this picture mean to you?


How are

compounds

classified?

There are two categories of compounds:

  • Organic

  • Inorganic


  • Substances that are formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements

Compounds

Most abundant compound on Earth is

___________

water


  • Elements have very different properties “actions/appearances” than the compounds that they form.

H2O

H = Hydrogen = gas

O = Oxygen = gas

H2O = water = liquid


  • Are expressed through formulas

  • Chemical formulas

  • Structural formulas

C12H22O11

Chemical

Structural

C6H12O6


Compounds are held

together by

BONDING

The attraction of atoms that cause element to form compounds


  • is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen

Organic

Compound

  • Found in all living things

  • Examples

  • C6H1206

  • CH4


  • Is any member of a large class of chemical compounds of molecules that contain earths elements

Inorganic

Compound

  • Notcapable of creating life, no combination makes life

  • Examples

  • NaCl

  • H2O

  • CO2


Compounds

Inorganic

Organic

Contains the earth’s element

Example: H2O water

Contains Carbon & Hydrogen always together!

Example: C6H12O6

glucose (sugar)


Proteins

Four Major Groups of Organic Compounds

Carbohydrates

Lipids

Nucleic Acids


Organic Compounds can combine to produce macromolecules!!!

Macromolecules

“giant molecules” that are made of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of smaller molecules.


1. Nucleic Acids

  • Importance: stores cellular information in the form of a code

  • Elements: C, H, O, N, P

  • Subunits : Nucleotides

  • Each nucleotide contains:

    • Nitrogenous base

    • Phosphorus

    • 5 Carbon Sugar

  • Examples:

    DNA and RNA


Structural formula


2.Carbohydrates

Building blocks:

Monosaccharide's

Aka

simple sugars


Chemical Formulas:

C6H12O6

Glucose

C12H22O11

Sucrose

(table sugar)

Ratio 1:2:1


Carbohydrate Functions

Source of short term & long term ENERGY and FOOD STORAGE


Carbohydrates come in many forms

that are classified into three categories:

Monosaccharides

Disaccharides

Polysaccharides


Monosaccharides

GLUCOSE

FRUCTOSE

GALACTOSE


Disaccharides

LACTOSE

SUCROSE

MALTOSE


Polysaccharides

CELLULOSE

STARCH


Summary

A sample of food containing one type of a large molecule was treated with a specific digestive enzyme.   Nutrient tests performed on the resulting products showed the presence of simple sugars, only. Based on  these test results, the original large molecules contained in the sample were molecules of……

STARCH!


AIM: How do Compounds effect organisms?

PART 2


In plants, simple sugars are least likely to be

linked together to form proteins

broken down into carbon dioxide and water

used as a source of energy

stored in the form of starch molecules


?


3.Lipids

Building blocks :

One Glycerol molecule and three Fatty Acidmolecules


Chemical Formulas:

C57H110O6

C54H99O6

Ratio is greater than 1:2:1


Lipid Functions

include energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, insulation, and participating as important signaling molecules


Lipids make up

fats, oils and waxes

Lipids can be found in butter, olive oil, peanut oil, cheese, milk, animal fat


LIPIDS THAT ARE SOLID ARE CALLED FAT

LIPIDS THAT ARE LIQUID ARE CALLED OIL


Final Summary

  • How can determine a lipid by chemical formula?

  • How can we identify a carbohydrate by name?

  • What is the usual structural shape of a carbohydrate molecule?

Greater than 2:1 ratio

-OSE ending

Ring shaped


What substance could be represented by the letter X in the diagram below?

carbohydrates

ozone

carbon dioxide

water


Organic compounds, such as proteins and starches, are too A to diffuse into cells. Proteins are digested into B and starches are digested into C.

A-large, B-simple sugars, C-amino acids

A-small, B-simple sugars, C-amino acids

A-large, B-amino acids, C-simple sugars

A-small, B-amino acids, C-simple sugars


How do Compounds effect organisms?


What substance could be represented by the letter X in the diagram below?

carbohydrates

ozone

carbon dioxide

water


Aim: How do proteins effect the homeostasis of an organsim?

DO Now: Complete

“Bio-Chem. recall” numbers 1-10

Homework: Bio-Chem. Review Sheet


4.Proteins

Building blocks:

Amino Acids


There are 20 different sorts of amino acid, each with slightly different properties

Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and are often folded up into a ball shape.


An 'average' protein has about 250 amino acids in its chain. How many different combinations are there of 250 amino acids? Although there are billions and billions of possible combinations, actually there are less than 100,000 used in the human body according to the best estimates of the scientists.


Chemical Formulas

C9 H17 O4 N3


Protein Functions

  • Structural component (most abundant organic material in the cell)

  • Cell communication (hormones)

  • Growth and repair

  • Control rate of chemical reactions (enzymes)

  • Immune defense (antibodies)

  • Energy source


Types of Proteins

Dipeptides

Polypeptides


What are the most important Function of Proteins?

1) Structural Material (most abundant organic material within the cell)

2) Muscle Tissue

3) Enzymes

- control chemical reactions w/in organisms

4) Cell communication (hormones, neurotransmitters)

5) Immune response (antibodies)

6) Growth and repair


AIM: How are organic compounds created?

Do Now: Using the following word combinations create one sentence for each.

  • Organic compound, carbon, element

  • Carbohydrates, building blocks, monosaccarhides

  • Lipids, energy, fats, oils


How are organic compounds created?


CHEMICAL REACTION

The formation of or breaking of chemical bonds, usually represented by a word or chemical equation.

Na + ClNaCl

H2 + N2 NH3


Reactants= found on the left of the equation

Arrow = “to make”; shows a reaction is

taking place

Products= found on the right side of the

equation.

Na + Cl NaCl

H2 + N22NH3


Two Types of Chemical reactions

1. Dehydration synthesis

Combining smallorganic compounds (subunits) to produce largeorganic compounds with the loss of water.


Example:

MONOSACCHARIDES ADD UP

TO FORM

POLYSACCHARIDES


WATER


Examples of Disaccharides

  • Sucrose = Fructose + Glucose

  • Maltose = Glucose + Glucose

  • Lactose = Glucose + Galactose


HYDROLYSIS

Breaking aLargeCompoundinto Smallercompounds by adding water

The reverse of dehydration synthesis!!!


Maltose + Water produces Glucose+Glucose

2 separate

molecules of glucose


&

What is this process called?

HYDROLYSIS


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