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America And World War I. Chapter 19 in The Americans. Essential Questions:. What were the causes of WWI? Why did America become involved in WWI? What were the consequences of WWI for America and the world?. Four Main Causes of WWI.

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America and world war i

America And World War I

Chapter 19 in The Americans


Essential questions
Essential Questions:

  • What were the causes of WWI?

  • Why did America become involved in WWI?

  • What were the consequences of WWI for America and the world?


Four main causes of wwi
Four Main Causes of WWI

  • Militarism: The development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy

    • An arms race developed between world powers when countries all tried to get better and stronger weapons than the others

  • Imperialism: The process of becoming a more powerful nation by getting control over weaker nations

    • Led to competition for colonies between European nations and eventually America

    • Nationalism: A devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation.

    • Led to competitive rivalries between nations in Europe

  • Alliances: a formal agreement of union between nations


System of alliances
System of Alliances

  • Triple Entente: The Allies

    • France

    • Britain

    • Russia

  • Triple Alliance: Central Powers

    • Germany

    • Austria-Hungary

    • Italy

    • Ottoman Empire

  • These alliances grouped together and when the war started they all supported each other


  • Wwi leaders the big four
    WWI Leaders – The Big Four

    Wilson: American President

    George Clemenceau: French leader

    David Lloyd George: British Prime Minister

    Vittorio Orlando: Italian Prime Minister


    German leader kaiser wilhelm ii
    German Leader: Kaiser Wilhelm II

    • Wilhelm II Bio at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/wilhelm_kaiser_ii.shtml


    Assassination sparks war
    Assassination Sparks War

    • The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand: Heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BCTIaiiGB4o

    • This caused Austria Hungary and it’s allies to declare war Serbia and it’s Allies

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lCbNE3ToePA

    Assassin GavriloPrincip

    Archduke Franz Ferdninand


    Lead up to american involvement
    Lead Up to American Involvement

    • Lusitania: A British liner that was sunk by the Germans in which 1,198 people died (128 Americans)

    • Zimmerman Note: a note from Germany revealing German support for Mexico against the US if the US entered the war

    • Convoy System: a system in which merchant ships would cross the Atlantic in large groups to prevent enemy attack


    American troops
    American Troops

    • Selective Service Act: required men to

      register with the government for a random

      draft (24 million men registered, 3 million

      were called up)

    • American Expeditionary Force (AEF): The American forces led by General John J. Pershing

    • Conscientious Objector: a person who opposes a war on moral grounds

    • Pacifist: a person who objects to all wars

    • Mobilization: When a country prepares for war


    Fighting wwi
    Fighting WWI

    • No man’s land: A space between the two sides trenches that was extremely dangerous for a person to be in

    • Trench warfare: when soldiers dug into the field and fought for yards of land at a time (extremely deadly way to fight)

    • U-Boat: German submarines; often used against merchant ships


    War technology
    WarTechnology

    German TriPlane

    French BiPane

    Tanks

    Machine Guns

    Grenades


    Cost of war
    Cost of War

    • 22 million dead (1/2 civilians)

    • 20 million wounded

    • 10 million refugees

    • $338 billion spent on war

    • 48,000 Americans killed in battle

    • 62,000 Americans killed by disease

    • 200,000 Americans wounded


    American homefront
    American Homefront

    • War Industries Board: committees set up to efficiently make supplies for the war effort led by Bernard Baruch

    • War Bonds: sold to raise money for the war effort

    • Committee on Public Information: sent out biased messages called propaganda to the American people in an effort to get them to support the war; led by George Creel

      • Propaganda: information spread to gain support for the war

    • Espionage and Sedition Act: a person could be punished for saying anything disloyal or for interfering with the war effort

    • Food Administration: led by Herbert Hoover, promoted rationing

    • National War Labor Board: created to limit labor disputes and maximize production

    • Great Migration: when hundreds of thousands of black Americans moved from the South to cities in the North during the war


    Russian revolution
    Russian Revolution

    • Vladmir Lenin: Led a coup of the Russian government by the Bolsheviks.

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=knjUx7A-G3w&feature=relmfu

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ofWYQh0dFWA&feature=relmfu

    • This event took Russia out of World War I


    Armistice
    Armistice

    • At 11 a.m. on 11 November 1918, (the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month), a ceasefire came into effect.

    • This is the date Americans celebrate Veterans Day.


    Fourteen points
    Fourteen Points:

    • A speech given by Wilson to Congress about how the war should end

    • First 5 points about how to avoid a war like this in the future

      • No secret treaties among nations

      • Freedom of the seas for all

      • Tariffs and other economic barriers should be removed between countries to promote free trade

      • Arms should be reduced to the lowest amount possible while still maintaining domestic safety

      • Colonials powers should consider the interests of colonists as well as their own interests

    • Next 8 points dealt with boundary changes that called for self-determination (the right for people to make their own countries)

    • The 14th Point was a call to create a League of Nations (a group of reps for all countries that could meet and discuss problems to prevent them from escalating to war)


    Treaty of versailles
    Treaty of Versailles

    • Agreement after WWI

      • Established 9 new nations (including Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia)

      • Carved 5 areas out of the Ottoman Empire and gave them the France and England as temporary colonies until they were ready for self-rule

      • Barred Germany from maintaining an army

      • Made Germany return Alsace and Lorraine to France

      • Made Germany pay 33 million dollars to the allies as reparations (war damages)

      • Included a war-guilt clause: forced Germany to admit sole responsibility for starting WWI


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