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BIO’s CATS Field, modelling, chemistry and instrumentation work November 2006. Simon Prinsenberg, Jim Hamilton and Peter Rhines. 0. Salinity. 35. 0. Sea-ice meltwater. seawater. δ 18 O (‰). Meteoric water (rain, snow, river runoff, glacial meltwater). -30. 3 - Instrumentation.

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BIO’s CATS

Field, modelling, chemistry and instrumentation work

November 2006

Simon Prinsenberg, Jim Hamilton and Peter Rhines


0

Salinity

35

0

Sea-ice meltwater

seawater

δ18O (‰)

Meteoric water

(rain, snow, river runoff, glacial meltwater)

-30

3 - Instrumentation

1 - Field work +Data

4 - Chemistry

2 - Modelling


Field/Data –

Jim Hamilton

Muray Scotney

Roger Petipas

Peter Rhines

Modelling –

Charles Hannah

Dave Greenberg

Youyu Lu

Fred Dupont

Instrumentation –

George Fowler

Brain Beamlands

Greg Siddall

Peter Rhines

Chemistry –

Kumico Atzuo-Scott


Project’s aim is to monitor and simulate The fluxes through the CAA as part of the Arctic-Atlantic ocean conveyor belt circulation

CAA- Canadian Arctic Archipelago

Barrow Strait - Lancaster Sound

From G. Holloway


Three major straits through the CAA

Survey area

(red Box)

Grid show the

diagnostic finite element model domain

(20058 elements)


Observation Problems:

Magnetic north pole

Mobile ice cover

North Pole

Modelling Problems:

Complex topography

Lack of bathymetric and oceanographic data



Software and hardware to measure current direction

in Low-horizontal Magnetic field with mid-water floats

by Jim Hamilton

ADCP with role/tilt compass

Magnetic direction 88O

in CAA

Vertical direction 90O

normally


Measuring current direction

in Low-horizontal Magnetic field

2004

  • Watson Compass provides role-tilt and magnetic Pole direction

  • This provides current magnetic direction data

  • Corrected by Resolute magnetic data for wandering magnetic North Pole .

  • To finally provide current direction to true north

  • Special data processing

Magnetic

North

True North


Lancaster sound survey

-

Deployment of

ADCP and battery pack


ULS mounted between two A2-SUBs

Ice draft measurements (2sec. data)


Lancaster Sound August 2004

  • First 6-years of field data


Ocean statistics

from time series data

Surface current

Barrow Strait

3 month average

from bi-hourly data


Ocean and pack ice

statistics

from time series data

Plots? Tables?

Website?

Currents at 80m

Barrow Strait

3 month average

from bi-hourly data


Ocean and pack ice

statistics

from time series data

Plots? Tables?

Website?

Ice velocity

Barrow Strait

3 month average

from bi-hourly data



Weekly and monthly fluxes for Aug. 98 to July 05 (7 years of data)

(seasonal weighted 2/3 southern site data and 1/3 northern site data)

Summer


Yearly and seasonal mean estimated fluxes passing through Lancaster Sound in units of Sv (= 106m3/s).


Monthly mean volume flux through eastern Barrow Strait derived from 6-year of mooring data (Aug. 1998 – Aug. 2004).


Transports from mooring data and their variability NAO derived from 6-year of mooring data (Aug. 1998 – Aug. 2004).


2 - Modelling derived from 6-year of mooring data (Aug. 1998 – Aug. 2004).


Modelling Problems: derived from 6-year of mooring data (Aug. 1998 – Aug. 2004).

Complex topography

Lack of bathymetric and oceanographic data

D. Greenberg,

C. Hannah

F. Dupont


Summer derived from 6-year of mooring data (Aug. 1998 – Aug. 2004). surface currents (arrows)

for

-10cm Baffin Bay set-up

color code is for depth contours


Ice concentration during the 1 year run coupled to AIM derived from 6-year of mooring data (Aug. 1998 – Aug. 2004).

Sep 89

June 1990

July 1990

Sep 1990

August 1990


Surface ocean current during the 1 year run coupled to AIM derived from 6-year of mooring data (Aug. 1998 – Aug. 2004).

Dec 89

Sep 89

Mars 90

June 1990

Sep 1990


WebTide derived from 6-year of mooring data (Aug. 1998 – Aug. 2004).

C. Hannah


WebTide derived from 6-year of mooring data (Aug. 1998 – Aug. 2004).

Tidal Currents

Future: wind effects


Increased # grids derived from 6-year of mooring data (Aug. 1998 – Aug. 2004).

3-4km at transect

Good for shore erosion, ship mooring sites and harbours


Large scale Ice-ocean Model (DFO and IPY) derived from 6-year of mooring data (Aug. 1998 – Aug. 2004).

  • Ocean module based on NEMO (OPA) and CICE ice module

  • Domain covers Arctic Ocean and sub-polar NA; a subset of global 1/4º MERCATOR grids

  • Minimum grid size 6 km in CAA and maximum15 km in Arctic Ocean and up to 40 vertical levels

  • 480x468x40 grids

    Youyu LU

Ice thickness


3 - Instrumentation derived from 6-year of mooring data (Aug. 1998 – Aug. 2004).

3 - Instrumentation


Sensor Float derived from 6-year of mooring data (Aug. 1998 – Aug. 2004).

EM Cable

Midwater

Float

Acoustic

Release

ICYCLER #2

ICYCLER:

Surface layer CTD profiler moored beneath mobile pack ice

25m

50m

By George Fowler

Problem:

Can not moor instruments in surface layer because of mobile ice cover, and yet there is where the large variability in the oceanographic parameters occur.



Yearlong Aug 2003- Aug 2004 Lancaster Sound

Fluorescence

Temperature



SeaMotor Lancaster Sound


Lost-found Lancaster Sound

ICYCLER

Seacat

pressure data

Aug. 04 – Aug. 06



0 Lancaster Sound

Salinity

35

0

Sea-ice meltwater

seawater

δ18O (‰)

Meteoric water

(rain, snow, river runoff, glacial meltwater)

-30

4 - Chemistry


How to use Lancaster Soundoxygen isotope composition (δ18O) to quantify the fresh water compositions

Salinity

heavy oxygen (O-18) enriched

0

35

0

Sea-ice meltwater

seawater

δ18O (‰)

Meteoric water

(rain, snow, river runoff, glacial meltwater)

-30

light oxygen (O-16) enriched

Water is a mixture of seawater and sea-ice meltwater

Water is a mixture of seawater and meteoric water

Water is a mixture of seawater, meteoric water and sea-ice meltwater


How to use Lancaster SoundTotal Alkalinity to quantify the fresh water compositions

Seawater

2300

River runoff

Total Alkalinity

Sea Ice, rain, snow meltwater

0

0

35

salinity

Water is a mixture of seawater and river runoff

Water is a mixture of seawater and sea ice meltwater

Water is a mixture of seawater, river runoff and sea-ice meltwater


0 Lancaster Sound

Salinity

35

0

Sea-ice meltwater

seawater

δ18O (‰)

1977

1980

2003

Meteoric water

(rain, snow, river runoff, glacial meltwater)

-30

δ18O vs. salinity (0-100m)

salinity

26

28

30

32

34

36

38

0

-0.5

-1

y = 0.35x - 13.10

-1.5

2

R

= 0.80

δ18O

-2

-2.5

-3

y = 0.38x - 14.16

-3.5

R

= 0.57

1977&1980

2

-4

2003

-4.5

Barrow Strait

Seasonality ?

Time series data


Yearlong water sampler to determine Lancaster Soundδ18O

MicroLab by Environtech


  • Where are we heading with the CAA research Lancaster Sound

  • Moorings in until August 2007?????

  • Modelling effort reduced at moment effort on data processing

  • Waiting for B-Base funding cycle to clear PERD (by early 2007)

  • Waiting for B-Base funding cycle to clear IPY (by early 2007)


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