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BIO’s CATS Field, modelling, chemistry and instrumentation work November 2006. Simon Prinsenberg, Jim Hamilton and Peter Rhines. 0. Salinity. 35. 0. Sea-ice meltwater. seawater. δ 18 O (‰). Meteoric water (rain, snow, river runoff, glacial meltwater). -30. 3 - Instrumentation.

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Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

BIO’s CATS

Field, modelling, chemistry and instrumentation work

November 2006

Simon Prinsenberg, Jim Hamilton and Peter Rhines


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

0

Salinity

35

0

Sea-ice meltwater

seawater

δ18O (‰)

Meteoric water

(rain, snow, river runoff, glacial meltwater)

-30

3 - Instrumentation

1 - Field work +Data

4 - Chemistry

2 - Modelling


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Field/Data –

Jim Hamilton

Muray Scotney

Roger Petipas

Peter Rhines

Modelling –

Charles Hannah

Dave Greenberg

Youyu Lu

Fred Dupont

Instrumentation –

George Fowler

Brain Beamlands

Greg Siddall

Peter Rhines

Chemistry –

Kumico Atzuo-Scott


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Project’s aim is to monitor and simulate The fluxes through the CAA as part of the Arctic-Atlantic ocean conveyor belt circulation

CAA- Canadian Arctic Archipelago

Barrow Strait - Lancaster Sound

From G. Holloway


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Three major straits through the CAA

Survey area

(red Box)

Grid show the

diagnostic finite element model domain

(20058 elements)


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Observation Problems:

Magnetic north pole

Mobile ice cover

North Pole

Modelling Problems:

Complex topography

Lack of bathymetric and oceanographic data


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Lancaster Sound year-long mooring 2004-05

south

north


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Software and hardware to measure current direction

in Low-horizontal Magnetic field with mid-water floats

by Jim Hamilton

ADCP with role/tilt compass

Magnetic direction 88O

in CAA

Vertical direction 90O

normally


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Measuring current direction

in Low-horizontal Magnetic field

2004

  • Watson Compass provides role-tilt and magnetic Pole direction

  • This provides current magnetic direction data

  • Corrected by Resolute magnetic data for wandering magnetic North Pole .

  • To finally provide current direction to true north

  • Special data processing

Magnetic

North

True North


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Lancaster sound survey

-

Deployment of

ADCP and battery pack


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

ULS mounted between two A2-SUBs

Ice draft measurements (2sec. data)


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Lancaster Sound August 2004

  • First 6-years of field data


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Ocean statistics

from time series data

Surface current

Barrow Strait

3 month average

from bi-hourly data


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Ocean and pack ice

statistics

from time series data

Plots? Tables?

Website?

Currents at 80m

Barrow Strait

3 month average

from bi-hourly data


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Ocean and pack ice

statistics

from time series data

Plots? Tables?

Website?

Ice velocity

Barrow Strait

3 month average

from bi-hourly data


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Ice draft plot monthly max., mean and Std. Dev.

from 2sec time series data


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Weekly and monthly fluxes for Aug. 98 to July 05 (7 years of data)

(seasonal weighted 2/3 southern site data and 1/3 northern site data)

Summer


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Yearly and seasonal mean estimated fluxes passing through Lancaster Sound in units of Sv (= 106m3/s).


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Monthly mean volume flux through eastern Barrow Strait derived from 6-year of mooring data (Aug. 1998 – Aug. 2004).


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Transports from mooring data and their variability NAO


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

2 - Modelling


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Modelling Problems:

Complex topography

Lack of bathymetric and oceanographic data

D. Greenberg,

C. Hannah

F. Dupont


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Summer surface currents (arrows)

for

-10cm Baffin Bay set-up

color code is for depth contours


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Ice concentration during the 1 year run coupled to AIM

Sep 89

June 1990

July 1990

Sep 1990

August 1990


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Surface ocean current during the 1 year run coupled to AIM

Dec 89

Sep 89

Mars 90

June 1990

Sep 1990


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

WebTide

C. Hannah


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

WebTide

Tidal Currents

Future: wind effects


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Increased # grids

3-4km at transect

Good for shore erosion, ship mooring sites and harbours


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Large scale Ice-ocean Model (DFO and IPY)

  • Ocean module based on NEMO (OPA) and CICE ice module

  • Domain covers Arctic Ocean and sub-polar NA; a subset of global 1/4º MERCATOR grids

  • Minimum grid size 6 km in CAA and maximum15 km in Arctic Ocean and up to 40 vertical levels

  • 480x468x40 grids

    Youyu LU

Ice thickness


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

3 - Instrumentation

3 - Instrumentation


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Sensor Float

EM Cable

Midwater

Float

Acoustic

Release

ICYCLER #2

ICYCLER:

Surface layer CTD profiler moored beneath mobile pack ice

25m

50m

By George Fowler

Problem:

Can not moor instruments in surface layer because of mobile ice cover, and yet there is where the large variability in the oceanographic parameters occur.


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

ICYCLER #1 provided yearlong CTD-Chl data set 2003-2004 from Lancaster Sound


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Yearlong Aug 2003- Aug 2004

Fluorescence

Temperature


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Freshwater flux is underestimated by 30m MicroCat data


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

SeaMotor


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Lost-found

ICYCLER

Seacat

pressure data

Aug. 04 – Aug. 06


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

  • Profiler line spooled out

  • Buoyancy tank imploded but sealed

  • Baterry dead and Corrosion


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

0

Salinity

35

0

Sea-ice meltwater

seawater

δ18O (‰)

Meteoric water

(rain, snow, river runoff, glacial meltwater)

-30

4 - Chemistry


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

How to use oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) to quantify the fresh water compositions

Salinity

heavy oxygen (O-18) enriched

0

35

0

Sea-ice meltwater

seawater

δ18O (‰)

Meteoric water

(rain, snow, river runoff, glacial meltwater)

-30

light oxygen (O-16) enriched

Water is a mixture of seawater and sea-ice meltwater

Water is a mixture of seawater and meteoric water

Water is a mixture of seawater, meteoric water and sea-ice meltwater


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

How to use Total Alkalinity to quantify the fresh water compositions

Seawater

2300

River runoff

Total Alkalinity

Sea Ice, rain, snow meltwater

0

0

35

salinity

Water is a mixture of seawater and river runoff

Water is a mixture of seawater and sea ice meltwater

Water is a mixture of seawater, river runoff and sea-ice meltwater


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

0

Salinity

35

0

Sea-ice meltwater

seawater

δ18O (‰)

1977

1980

2003

Meteoric water

(rain, snow, river runoff, glacial meltwater)

-30

δ18O vs. salinity (0-100m)

salinity

26

28

30

32

34

36

38

0

-0.5

-1

y = 0.35x - 13.10

-1.5

2

R

= 0.80

δ18O

-2

-2.5

-3

y = 0.38x - 14.16

-3.5

R

= 0.57

1977&1980

2

-4

2003

-4.5

Barrow Strait

Seasonality ?

Time series data


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

Yearlong water sampler to determine δ18O

MicroLab by Environtech


Bio s cats field modelling chemistry and instrumentation work november 2006

  • Where are we heading with the CAA research

  • Moorings in until August 2007?????

  • Modelling effort reduced at moment effort on data processing

  • Waiting for B-Base funding cycle to clear PERD (by early 2007)

  • Waiting for B-Base funding cycle to clear IPY (by early 2007)


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