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Earth’s energy - atmosphere system

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Earth’s energy - atmosphere system

Solar

174,000 terrawatts

Geothermal

23 terrawatts

Tidal

3 terrawatts

- Radiation basics
- Interactions of radiation with the atmosphere
- Net radiation
- Heat fluxes
- Energy budget

Electromagnetic radiation

- Described by:
- Energy emitted (I) – W/m2
- Wavelength (l) - mm

Stefan-Boltzman law:

Amount of radiation emitted by an object is proportional to temperature of the object

I = s T4

Where s = Stefan Boltzman constant

T = temperature (Kelvin)

Wien’s law:

Wavelength of radiation emitted by an object is inversely proportional to temperature of the object

l = c / T

Where c = constant (2897)

T = temperature (Kelvin)

Solar radiation

= shortwave

Terrestrial radiation

= longwave

Radiation pathways

The role of surface reflectance

The role of clouds

Ionosphere

Ozonesphere

Ionosphere

Ozonesphere

See text, page 55, figure 2.4

Rn = SW - SW - LW + LW

The sum of all incoming and outgoing radiation at earth’s surface, represented by shortwave and longwave radiation

SW = shortwave (solar radiation)

LW = longwave (terrestrial radiation)

Represents expenditures of net radiation at the earth’s surface

Sensible heat – energy absorbed in the warming of surfaces

Latent heat – energy absorbed to evaporate water

Ground heat – energy absorbed into the ground surface

Metabolism – energy required to drive metabolic processes (photosynthesis)

Energy budget

Radiation inputs and heat fluxes must balance

- All objects emit electromagnetic radiation
- Energy directly proportional to temperature
- Wavelength inversely proportional to temperature

- Various interactions with electromagnetic radiation occur in atmosphere
- Ionosphere filters out harmful xrays, gamma rays
- Ozonosphere (stratosphere) filters out ultraviolet rays
- Water vapor and carbon dioxide in troposphere absorb longwave radiation

- Net radiation
- Represents the sum of radiation inputs and losses from solar and terrestrial sources

- Heat fluxes
- Includes sensible heat, latent heat, ground heat and metabolic fluxes

- Energy budget
- general framework dictating that net radiation and heat fluxes must balance