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Earth’s energy - atmosphere systemPowerPoint Presentation

Earth’s energy - atmosphere system

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### Earth’s energy - atmosphere system

Outline

- Radiation basics
- Interactions of radiation with the atmosphere
- Net radiation
- Heat fluxes
- Energy budget

Radiation basics

Electromagnetic radiation

- Described by:
- Energy emitted (I) – W/m2
- Wavelength (l) - mm

Radiation laws

Stefan-Boltzman law:

Amount of radiation emitted by an object is proportional to temperature of the object

I = s T4

Where s = Stefan Boltzman constant

T = temperature (Kelvin)

Radiation laws

Wien’s law:

Wavelength of radiation emitted by an object is inversely proportional to temperature of the object

l = c / T

Where c = constant (2897)

T = temperature (Kelvin)

Radiation basics

Radiation pathways

Radiation basics

The role of surface reflectance

Radiation basics

The role of clouds

Structure of the atmosphere

See text, page 55, figure 2.4

Net radiation

The sum of all incoming and outgoing radiation at earth’s surface, represented by shortwave and longwave radiation

SW = shortwave (solar radiation)

LW = longwave (terrestrial radiation)

Heat fluxes

Represents expenditures of net radiation at the earth’s surface

Sensible heat – energy absorbed in the warming of surfaces

Latent heat – energy absorbed to evaporate water

Ground heat – energy absorbed into the ground surface

Metabolism – energy required to drive metabolic processes (photosynthesis)

Radiation inputs and heat fluxes must balance

Summary

- All objects emit electromagnetic radiation
- Energy directly proportional to temperature
- Wavelength inversely proportional to temperature

- Various interactions with electromagnetic radiation occur in atmosphere
- Ionosphere filters out harmful xrays, gamma rays
- Ozonosphere (stratosphere) filters out ultraviolet rays
- Water vapor and carbon dioxide in troposphere absorb longwave radiation

Summary (continued)

- Net radiation
- Represents the sum of radiation inputs and losses from solar and terrestrial sources

- Heat fluxes
- Includes sensible heat, latent heat, ground heat and metabolic fluxes

- Energy budget
- general framework dictating that net radiation and heat fluxes must balance

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