Earth s energy atmosphere system
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Earth’s energy - atmosphere system. Earth’s energy inputs. Solar 174,000 terrawatts. Geothermal 23 terrawatts. Tidal 3 terrawatts. Outline. Radiation basics Interactions of radiation with the atmosphere Net radiation Heat fluxes Energy budget. 1. Radiation basics.

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Earth s energy atmosphere system

Earth’s energy - atmosphere system


Earth s energy inputs
Earth’s energy inputs

Solar

174,000 terrawatts

Geothermal

23 terrawatts

Tidal

3 terrawatts


Outline
Outline

  • Radiation basics

  • Interactions of radiation with the atmosphere

  • Net radiation

  • Heat fluxes

  • Energy budget




Radiation basics1
Radiation basics

Electromagnetic radiation

  • Described by:

  • Energy emitted (I) – W/m2

  • Wavelength (l) - mm


Radiation laws
Radiation laws

Stefan-Boltzman law:

Amount of radiation emitted by an object is proportional to temperature of the object

I = s T4

Where s = Stefan Boltzman constant

T = temperature (Kelvin)


Radiation laws1
Radiation laws

Wien’s law:

Wavelength of radiation emitted by an object is inversely proportional to temperature of the object

l = c / T

Where c = constant (2897)

T = temperature (Kelvin)


Radiation basics2
Radiation basics

Solar radiation

= shortwave

Terrestrial radiation

= longwave


Radiation basics3
Radiation basics

Radiation pathways


Radiation basics4
Radiation basics

The role of surface reflectance


Radiation basics5
Radiation basics

The role of clouds



Structure of the atmosphere
Structure of the atmosphere

Ionosphere

Ozonesphere


Structure of the atmosphere1
Structure of the atmosphere

Ionosphere

Ozonesphere


Structure of the atmosphere2
Structure of the atmosphere

See text, page 55, figure 2.4



Net radiation

Rn = SW - SW - LW + LW

Net radiation

The sum of all incoming and outgoing radiation at earth’s surface, represented by shortwave and longwave radiation

SW = shortwave (solar radiation)

LW = longwave (terrestrial radiation)



Heat fluxes
Heat fluxes

Represents expenditures of net radiation at the earth’s surface

Sensible heat – energy absorbed in the warming of surfaces

Latent heat – energy absorbed to evaporate water

Ground heat – energy absorbed into the ground surface

Metabolism – energy required to drive metabolic processes (photosynthesis)



Energy budget

Radiation inputs and heat fluxes must balance


Summary
Summary

  • All objects emit electromagnetic radiation

    • Energy directly proportional to temperature

    • Wavelength inversely proportional to temperature

  • Various interactions with electromagnetic radiation occur in atmosphere

    • Ionosphere filters out harmful xrays, gamma rays

    • Ozonosphere (stratosphere) filters out ultraviolet rays

    • Water vapor and carbon dioxide in troposphere absorb longwave radiation


Summary continued
Summary (continued)

  • Net radiation

    - Represents the sum of radiation inputs and losses from solar and terrestrial sources

  • Heat fluxes

    - Includes sensible heat, latent heat, ground heat and metabolic fluxes

  • Energy budget

    - general framework dictating that net radiation and heat fluxes must balance


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