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TOPIC THREE. Genetic Continuity. A. Humans have 46 chromosomes, or 23 homologous pairs. The diagram shows a pair of chromosomes with genes A, B and C that would each code for a different characteristic.

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TOPIC THREE

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Topic three

TOPIC THREE

Genetic Continuity


Topic three

  • A. Humans have 46 chromosomes, or 23 homologous pairs.


Topic three

The diagram shows a pair of chromosomes with genes A, B and C that would each code for a different characteristic.

A1 and A2 are different alleles of the same gene. A1 might code for red hair, whilst A2 might code for brown hair.

B1 and B2 are the same genes, coding for the same characteristic, for example, freckles.

C1 and C2 are different alleles. C1 might code for straight hair and C2 for wavy hair

Genes may have different forms, for example, there are genes for blue eyes, brown eyes, green eyes and hazel eyes. The different forms of a gene are called alleles.

  • B. Chromosome pairs carry alleles for the same trait. We all have two alleles for each gene one from each parent.


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  • C. While genes determine our traits, the environment can affect expression of genes.

Click on the image for video


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  • D. Each chromosome has hundreds or thousands of genes. Each gene codes for a particular protein

Each shaded band has many genes located within them. The red arrows indicate the locations of the genes for breast cancer


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  • E. DNA is made of 4 bases: ATCG. A three letter codon represents a specific amino acid. Ex. CAU is histidine. These amino acids are assembles into proteins.


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  • F. Base pairs: A matches up with T, C matches up with G (in RNA, A-U and C-G)


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  • G. RNA carries the genetic code to ribosomes. The ribosomes then synthesize proteins.

Click on image for animation


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  • H. Changes to DNA are called mutations. They can only be passed on if they occur in reproductive cells (sperm or egg).

translocation

deletion

insertion

duplication


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  • I. All cells in the body contain the same genes. Only some of these genes are turned on, that is, your eye cells contain the instructions on how to make bones, but only the genes to make new eye cells are actually turned on. We do not yet know exactly why this happens.

Click on image for a video


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  • J. Selective breeding produces animals and plants with desired traits (disease resistance, larger fruit, more meat or milk, specific colors).

Click on image for a video


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  • K. Genetic engineering or gene splicing inserts genes of one organism into the genes of another. Enzymes are used to cut and copy the DNA segments. Bacteria are often used because they have no nucleus protecting their DNA and they reproduce very quickly, allowing large amounts of medicine (insulin) to be made.

Click on image for a video


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  • a. The example of gene splicing: The gene to make human insulin was inserted into bacteria. These bacteria cannow make insulin that is exactly the same as human insulin. This insulin is used bydiabetics. This is safer than the cow and sheep insulin that were used in the past.


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  • L. New technologies ex. (electrophoresis a tool that allows scientists to separate DNA according to size) are making it easier to diagnose and treat genetic disease, though we cannot yet cure them.

Click on lab image below for animation


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