The respiratory system
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THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. VENTILATION & RESPIRATION. VENTILATION. Ventilation = Breathing – NO gas exchange. Inspiration & Expiration Steps. Diaphragm contracts & lowers. Intercostals contract & lift ribs. Lungs expand. Increased volume in lungs = decreased pressure in lungs.

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THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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The respiratory system

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

VENTILATION & RESPIRATION


Ventilation

VENTILATION

  • Ventilation = Breathing – NO gas exchange

  • Inspiration & Expiration Steps

  • Diaphragm contracts & lowers

  • Intercostals contract & lift ribs

  • Lungs expand

  • Increased volume in lungs = decreased pressure in lungs

  • Air moves in (high to low pressure)

  • Expiration = opposite!


Ventilation visuals

VENTILATION VISUALS

Be sure to look at these sites: copy & paste the URL’s

http://oac.med.jhmi.edu/res_phys/Encyclopedia/AlveolarPressure/AlveolarPressure.HTML

http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/animation_quizzes/animate_11.htm


Ventilation visuals1

VENTILATION VISUALS

Be sure to look at these sites: type in the URL’s

http://oac.med.jhmi.edu/res_phys/Encyclopedia/AlveolarPressure/AlveolarPressure.HTML

http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/animation_quizzes/animate_11.htm


Lung volume capacities

Lung Volume & Capacities

Assignment

  • Use text pg 497

  • Label all terms on chart (you can use letters)

  • BRIEFLY define all terms in space around chart

  • Define “Dead Space”

    ☆ This will be graded next class with an open-note quiz - you will not turn it in!


Respiration

RESPIRATION

  • Respiration = actual exchange of gases

  • Types:

  • External = diffusion of O2 CO2 between alveoli blood

  • Internal = diffusion of O2 CO2 between blood cells

  • Cellular = cells use O2 to burn food (glucose) & produce CO2 as waste

Copy & Paste this URL!

http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/animation_quizzes/animate_96.htm


Respiration wrap up

RESPIRATION WRAP-UP


Transportation of gases oxygen

TRANSPORTATION OF GASES: Oxygen

  • 98% of O2 in blood is bound to Hemoglobin (Hb)

    Hb + O2 HbO2

  • How tight the Hb holds on to O2 depends on:

    • pH

    • Temperature

    • Amount of CO2 & O2 present

  • Ex: In muscles

    at exercise


Transportation of gases carbon dioxide

TRANSPORTATION OF GASES: Carbon Dioxide

  • Can be transported 1 of 3 ways:

  • Dissolved in the plasma – 7%

  • Directly bound to Hb – 23%

  • Converted to carbonic acid & then bicarbonate ion on the RBC – 70%

  • CO2 + H20  H2CO3 HCO3- +H+

☆ Respiratory Rates are VERY susceptible to levels of CO2 in the blood: too high = too acidic – body response = increased breathing


Respiratory disorders

RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

VOCABULARY

  • Apnea = absence of breathing

  • Dyspnea = difficulty breathing

  • Hypoxia = decreased O2 to cells

☆ Lung Cancer = #1 cause of cancer death in U.S. & >90% of all cases are b/c of smoking!


Respiratory disorders1

RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

  • Emphysema – degeneration of alveolar walls (permanent)

Normal Alveoli


Respiratory disorders2

RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

  • Asthma – spasm of bronchioles


Respiratory disorders3

RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

  • Pneumonia – viral/bacterial infection of alveoli walls


Respiratory disorders4

RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

  • Pulmonary edema – fluid in alveoli - usually from another condition (like a failing heart!)


Respiratory disorders5

RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

  • Cystic Fibrosis – genetic disorder fills lungs with mucus – death by age 30 usually!


Respiratory disorders6

RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

  • Tuberculosis(TB) – bacterial infection- scarring of lungs/death

    ☆ #1 infectious disease killer in world

    ☆ > 2 billion infected & becoming resistant to meds!


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