Dynamics and photochemistry of n2 ion in the polar ionosphere
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Dynamics and Photochemistry of N2+ Ion in the Polar Ionosphere. Manabu Yamada, S. Watanabe ( Hokkaido Univ. ) N. Yoshida, Y. Takahashi ( Tohoku Univ. ) Y. Ogawa and R. Fujii ( STEL, Nagoya Univ. ). In situ observation DE1 satellite, Akebono satellite, etc. Optical observation

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Dynamics and photochemistry of n2 ion in the polar ionosphere

Dynamics and Photochemistry of N2+ Ion in the Polar Ionosphere

Manabu Yamada, S. Watanabe (Hokkaido Univ.)

N. Yoshida, Y. Takahashi(Tohoku Univ.)

Y. Ogawa and R. Fujii (STEL, Nagoya Univ.)

Molecular ions observed by satellites

In situ observation Ionosphere

DE1 satellite, Akebono satellite, etc.

Optical observation

MSX satellite

Molecular Ions observed by satellites

Molecular ions were observed at high altitudes of several thousands km.

DE1 satellite observed molecular ions at several RE.

(Craven et al., 1985)

  • There are methods to observe ions near 1000 km altitudes where ions are heated/accelerated.

    • Rocket/Satellite.

    • Radar : It is difficult to identify ion species.

Possibility of n ground based observation
Possibility of N Ionosphere2+ ground based observation.

  • Romick et al. [1999]

    • Using MSX satellite, they observed solar resonance fluorescence of N2+ ion above 450 km at the Northern polar cap.

Romick et al. [1999]

A new method of ion upflow observation
A new method of ion upflow observation Ionosphere

  • Optical ground based observation of N2+ 1st negative bands resonant scattering.

    • We may monitor cusp structure.

    • We may understand structure of ion heating/acceleration region and mechanisms of molecular ion upflow.


Period: Ionosphere

25 Nov. 2000~9 Dec. 2000


Longyearbyen Auroral station

Geographic coordinate 78゚,12′,086″N,15゚,49′,893″E

Invariant latitude 75゚18′N


List of all observation

MLT =UT+4.09 [hour]

=LT+3.02 [hour]

observation Ionosphere




Mais multicolor all sky imaging system

Simultaneous observation of 2 wave lengths Ionosphere(6 channels)

427.8nm (N2+1st negative)

557.7nm (OI)

Exposure: 1min.

MAIS (Multicolor All-sky Imaging System)

Estimation of altitude profile
Estimation of altitude profile Ionosphere

  • Assumption

  • 557.7nm and 427.8nm are emitted at same magnetic field line.

  • The peak of 557.7nm emission is 110km.


  • Pick up geomagnetic meridian data.

  • Estimate the distance until the aurora using a peak of 557.7 emission.

  • Obtain altitude profile of N2+ emission.




Estimation of n 2 produced by euv

T Ionosphere1

Estimation of N2+ produced by EUV

To estimate intensity profile of N2+ emission.

  • From data obtained at day time, we can know relation between solar zenith angle and intensity at the zenith.

  • To differentiate the data, intensities of N2+ emission at each altitude are estimated.


Intensity of N2+ emission decreases 4 order with the increase of altitudes from 100km to 200km.

Summary Ionosphere

  • N2+ 1st negative bands emission at several hundred km altitudes in aurora region could be observed from ground.

  • We may be able to monitor ion dynamics in the topside ionosphere using N2+ 1st negativebands emission.

    To observe N2+ emission in the cusp region

    • Improve method of analysis and instrument of observation.

Acknowledgements Ionosphere

  • We are indebted to the director and staff of EISCAT for operating the facility and supplying the data. EISCAT is an International Association supported by Finland (SA), France (CNRS), the Federal Republic of Germany (MPG), Japan (NIPR), Norway (NFR), Sweden (NFR) and the United Kingdom (PPARC).