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Review for AAS. Meats Notes: Zoology. Vocabulary. Palatability : how a food appeals to the palate (smell, sight, taste, texture, etc.) Retail Cuts : small cuts of meat customers purchase at grocery stores Antemortem : before death

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Review for aas
Review for AAS

Meats Notes: Zoology


  • Palatability: how a food appeals to the palate (smell, sight, taste, texture, etc.)

  • Retail Cuts: small cuts of meat customers purchase at grocery stores

  • Antemortem: before death

  • Wholesale Cuts: large sections of carcass ( half a hog or quarter of a beef) that are sold to stores who cut them into retail cuts

  • Rigor Mortis: a physiological process where muscles stiffen and lock into place

  • Exsanguination: removal of an animal’s blood

  • Postmortem: after death

  • Mastication: chewing

  • Meat (muscle?): any edible tissue from animals

  • Chine: the backbone of an animal

  • Kosher: any food prepared according to Jewish dietary law

  • Immobilization: to render an animal oblivious to pain

  • Aging: to let a carcass hang in a cool environment for a period of time to let enzymes break down meats

4 categories of meats
4 Categories of Meats

  • Red

  • Poultry

  • Seafood/Fish

  • Game

  • Red: beef, veal, lamb, pork (?)

  • Poultry: chicken, turkey, duck (?)

  • Fish: trout, crab, salmon, lobster, tilapia

  • Game: bear, turkey, duck, antelope, grouse, deer, moose, pheasant

Meat names
Meat Names

  • Poultry

  • Beef

  • Meat

  • Veal

  • Mutton

  • Lamb

  • Pork

  • Chevon

  • Cabrito

History of the meat industry
History of the Meat Industry

  • Uncle Sam:

    • Sam Wilson a pork producer

  • Cincinatti was called

    • Porkopolis

  • Wall Street:

    • actually a wall erected in Manhattan to prevent pigs from entering town, kept the name ever since

History of the meat industry1
History of the Meat Industry

  • Packing Industry: went from an art to a science (why?)

  • The Packing Industry:

    • meats were salted and packed into barrels

  • Used to be one animal at a time, now:

    • Beef = 4,000/line/day

    • Pork = 8,000/line/day

    • Chickens = 70-80,000/line/day

History of the meat industry2
History of the Meat Industry

  • No federal inspection

  • Upton Sinclair’s book “The Jungle”

  • Meat Inspection Act of 1906

  • Humane Slaughter Act of 1957

Meat industry
Meat Industry

  • Seven areas of inspection

  • Sanitation, antemortem, postmortem, control and restriction of condemned materials, product, laboratory inspection, marketing and labeling

The slaughter process
The slaughter process

  • Live inspection

  • Immobilization

  • Humane slaughter act

  • Bolt, electricity, gas

  • No pain

  • Heart must continue pumping

Kosher Slaughter:

~ Any food prepared according to Jewish dietary law

~Are exempt from stunning the animal but must be done

as humanely as possible

~Must be from religiously acceptable animals

~Meats are undesirable if improperly slaughtered, are not

cloven hooved, etc. called non kosher

~Kosher foods have a mark (Circle U)

~Area must be blessed by a rabbi, only the forequarters can

be used because sciatic nerve in hindquarters

Continuation of slaughter process
Continuation of Slaughter Process

  • Exsanguination

  • Slit the throat, done quickly to prevent hemorrhaging or spots in the meat from ruptured blood vessels

  • Gut the animal, save edible organs (liver is the most common edible organ)

  • Internal organs are inspected for health problems, each carcass for consumption has to be inspected

Processing the carcass
Processing the Carcass

  • Carcasses are split

  • Cooler

  • rigor mortis (6-12 hours for beef and lamb, 30m-3hours for pork)

  • Enzymes and microorganisms break down tissue

  • Rigor – Relax = Meat

When does meat become muscle
When does Meat become Muscle?

  • After the rigor/relax process!!!

  • Why hang a carcass?

    • Over a week

    • Enzymes and microorganisms break down meats

    • Increase palatability and flavor and tenderness

Meats are good
Meats are Good!

  • Meats taste good because of intramuscular fat

    • marbling

  • This is fat within the meats, not globs that you can cut off

Antimortem Effects that can affect meat quality:

A. Feed

B. Genetics

C. Sex/Age

D. Stress

E. Disease

***Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS) is a stress that actually ruins the meat of an animal and causes the meat to be (PSE) pale, soft and excudative (watery)

*** DDF or dry, dark and firm is a stress condition in cattle causing “dark cutters”

Postmortem effects that can affect meat quality:

~heating and cooling is the main one!


Where do steaks and chops come from?

~the loin of the animal