Knee Boney Anatomy
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Femur Patellar surface femur Lateral condyle & epicondyle Head fibula Tibial tuberosity Fibula - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Knee Boney Anatomy. Medial condyle & epicondyle Medial condyle of tibia. Femur Patellar surface femur Lateral condyle & epicondyle Head fibula Tibial tuberosity Fibula. Medial Collateral Ligament. MCL Mechanism of Injury Valgus Stress. MCL Sprain.

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Presentation Transcript

Knee Boney Anatomy

Medial condyle & epicondyle

Medial condyle of tibia

Femur

Patellar surface femur

Lateral condyle & epicondyle

Head fibula

Tibial tuberosity

Fibula



Mcl sprain

MCL Mechanism of Injury Valgus Stress

MCL Sprain

1st Degree 2nd Degree 3rd Degree


Valgus stress test
Valgus Stress Test

Stresses MCL

Valgus Stress at 0 - 5º

Valgus Stress at 25 - 30 º



Varus stress test

MOI of LCL Injury

Varus Stress Test

Stresses lateral structures

Varus Stress

Varus Stress at 0 º and 25 º to 30º of flexion



Acl tear
ACL Tear

  • Anterior instability

  • Mechanism

    • Deceleration injury

    • IR of femur with knee flexed and foot planted

    • Hyperextension of knee

  • Swelling

  • Pop at time of injury

  • Pain with

    • AROM

    • PROM

  • Anterior instability

  • Decreased strength

  • Giving way or buckling

Signs and Symptoms


Anterior drawer test
Anterior Drawer Test

Grading Anterior InstabilityMedial viewRight knee

  • Stabilize Foot

  • Check for hamstrings relaxation

  • Thumbs either side patellar tendon

  • Apply anterior force

  • Grade amount of translation


Lachman s test
Lachman’s Test

  • Better test than Anterior Drawer

  • Takes opposition of hamstrings out of play

  • Knee flexed 15 º - 30º

  • Stabilize femur

  • Apply anterior force to tibia


Pivot shift test
Pivot Shift Test

  • Gold standard test for ACL

  • Leg is externally rotated

  • Valgus force is applied as leg is flexed

  • Positive test indicated by clunk sensation


Posterior cruciate ligament
Posterior CruciateLigament

Posterior cruciate


Posterior sag test
Posterior Sag Test

  • Posterior Cruciate vs Anterior Cruciate

  • Athlete supine

  • Both knees flexed 90’

  • Observe laterally


Posterior drawer test
Posterior Drawer Test

  • Athlete supine

  • Knee flexed 90’

  • Foot neutral

  • Sit on foot to stabilize it

  • Posterior force applied at tibial plateau

  • Positive test indicates PCL injury

PCL

ACL


Medial and lateral meniscus
Medial and Lateral Meniscus

Medial meniscus “C” shaped

Lateral meniscus more circular shaped

  • Mechanism of Injury

    • Squat with rotation

    • Internal rotation of femur

    • on fixed tibia


Joint space orientation
Joint Space Orientation

Lateral Meniscus

Medial Meniscus

Medial Joint Space

Lateral Joint Space


Mc murray test
Mc Murray Test

  • Flex knee fully

  • Palpate medial & lateral joint spaces with one hand

  • Rotate tibia opposite to femur as knee is extended

  • Palpable pop and/or pain indicate a positive test


Apley’s Compression Test

External rotation of tibia tests medial meniscus

Internal rotation of tibia tests lateral meniscus

Apley’s Distraction Test

Unloads the meniscus

Stressess MCL and LCL


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