Cold War Foreign Policy (1945-1991) Lesson One. Truman Eisenhower Kennedy Johnson Nixon. Ford Carter Reagan H.W. Bush.
Truman Eisenhower Kennedy Johnson Nixon
Ford Carter Reagan H.W. Bush
United States (U.S.)
Soviet Union (U.S.S.R)
Stars and Stripes
Hammer and Sickle
It refers to a mutual distrust between the two superpowers ideologies.
U.S. wants democracy, capitalism, free trade
U.S.S.R. wants communism, planned economies, and trade dominated by the USSR.
Collective security organization
The United Nations (replaced defunct League of Nations)
Picture 1- Security Council (15 members with five permanent members including the U.S., Great Britain, China, France, and Russia [formerly U.S.S.R])
Picture 2- General Assembly (194 member nations today)
New “Big Three” meet in Potsdam, Germany
Truman announced the existence of the a-bomb (Potsdam Declaration).
Cold War begins here
No free elections in Eastern Europe occupied by the Soviets when WW II ended.
Distrust over not sharing a-bomb secrets with an ally.
At the Yalta meeting (Feb. 1945) the “Big Three” decided to partition Germany.
It was divided into a West Germany and East Germany.
Berlinwas a divided city despite being squarely in the Soviet occupation zone.
Stalin makes Eastern Europe into “satellite nations”
Former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill called the Soviet dominated region the,
Foreign policy concept defining steps to be taken by the U.S. to prevent the spread of communism in the post-war world.
George F. Kennan
It created the a restructured military apparatus to help the modern president confront a myriad of volatile situations.
Department of Defense (Pentagon)
Joint Chiefs of Staff
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
The first official covert agency in US history.
Covert operations of the 50’s in Iran and Guatemala led to the overthrow of governments and the installation of pro-U.S. dictators.
U.S. plan to rebuild Europe in order to prevent the spread of Communism to Western Europe (containment).
16 nations received $13 billion in aid.
Stalin turned down aid offered to Soviet bloc nations.
Secretary of State
On March 12, 1947, Truman asked Congress for $400 million in economic and military aid for Greece and Turkey.
He declared that “it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” (containment)
Harry S. Truman
Stalin’s siege to cut off West Berlin that lasted for 327 days.
The U.S. Air Force flew 277,000 flights to constantly resupply the city.
U.S. won this first confrontation of the Cold War
First Cold War Confrontation
Civil war between pro-U.S Chiang Kai-shek [Nationalist] and U.S.S.R. supported Mao Zedong [Communist].
Nationalist fled to Formosa [Taiwan]
Truman is said to have “lost” China by conservatives in both political parties.
The alliance led by the United States.
Entangling alliance warned about by George Washington in 1797.
Fear of Senate Republicans in 1919 over the League of Nations
Soviet counterpart to NATO.
U.S.S.R and her 7 “satellite nations”
Intervened in East Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia between 1953 and 1967 to end any movement toward democracy.
June 1950, N. Korea invaded S. Korea.
U.S. and 15 other nations agreed to help S. Korea through the UN.
Macarthur launched the Inchon offensive
What was the strategy?
A. offensive- attack above the 38th parallel (MacArthur)
B. defensive- stop at the 38th parallel (Truman)
The Forgotten War
In November 1950, the Chinese entered the war fearing MacArthur may attack them.
MacArthur wanted to attack China and suggested even using the A-bomb (offensive strategy).
Truman was against this. The general talked to the press and to Republicans about his plan.
The President had to act- he fired MacArthur for insubordination.
The American public sided with MacArthur at first but later came to agree with Truman’s stance for a limited war.
A cease-fire went into effect in June 1951.
The 38th parallel was agreed to as a “demilitarized zone”
The result was a divided Korea.
An armistice was agreed to in July 1953 after Eisenhower won the “52 election and went to Korea.
Cost the U.S. $67 million dollars and 54,000 deaths
Threatened to use h-bomb (brinksmanship)
Ends the Korean War
Brinksmanship or Massive Retaliation
Increased the role of the CIA
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Secretary of State John Foster Dulles
Brinksmanship/Massive Retaliation policy
This policy stressed a reduction in conventional military forces while increasing air defenses, the nuclear options, and the deliver vehicles for the nuclear weapons.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
John Foster Dulles
President Eisenhower announced that after the French fiasco at Diem Bien Phu in 1954 that the U.S. had to help South Vietnam.
Geneva Accords (1954)
Divided Vietnam into two nations
Domino Theory in SE Asia
President Eisenhower extended the Truman Doctrine to cover the Middle East.
The U.S. would defend the Middle East against any attack by a communist country
Problem: A new pro-Soviet government in Egypt nationalized or took control of the canal.
Great Britain, France, and Israel invaded and took over the canal.
The U.S. and U.S.S.R. averted a crisis by getting their puppets to back off.
In 1953, Soviet leader Josef Stalin died.
Nikita Khrushchev became the new Soviet leader.
Eisenhower and Khrushchev met for a summit.
“Spirit of Geneva “
Dwight D. Eisenhower
In 1956, Hungarians revolted against Soviet rule.
Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev and the Warsaw Pact nations invaded Hungary.
Eisenhower did not help the pro-democracy movement in fear of war with the U.S.S.R
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Goal: To bury the West
Soviets moved ahead in the space race in 1957 with the launching of Sputnik I (first manmade satellite).
U.S. spent millions to catch up and launched the Telstar satellite in 1958
A. Philip Randolph
The U.S. Congress created a new agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), to win the space race.
Rocket technology, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and satellites were quickly developed.
U-2 pilot, Francis Gary Powers, was shot down over USSR while flying a covert aerial recon mission for the CIA.
Powers was shot down, put on trial, and sentenced to 10 years in prison.
Ike stopped the U-2 flights but never apologized to USSR.
This ruined possible arms reduction summits in the future.
1) It blocked German reunification- U.S. supported the pro-U.S. West Germany while a pro-Soviet East Germany formed by 1950.
2) Military alliances or collective security emerged:
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) U.S. and allies
Warsaw Pact (1955) Soviet Union and “satellite nations”
United Nations (1945)
3) Cold War spread from Eastern Europe to the Middle East, East Asia (China), and Southeast Asia (Korea, Vietnam)
4) 45 year Cold War between the two superpowers