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The Exchange System. By Aimee Clem, R.D. Graduate Student, Nutrition Central Washington University. The Exchange System: What is it?. Food classification method Created for diabetics by ADA & ADA Track Calories, CHO’s, PRO, FAT Healthy way of eating. Athlete Nutrition.

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The exchange system

The Exchange System

By Aimee Clem, R.D.

Graduate Student, Nutrition

Central Washington University


The exchange system what is it
The Exchange System: What is it?

  • Food classification method

  • Created for diabetics by ADA & ADA

    • Track Calories, CHO’s, PRO, FAT

  • Healthy way of eating


Athlete nutrition
Athlete Nutrition

  • Awareness of macronutrient composition

  • Allows dietitian/nutritionist to estimate Calorie and macronutrient intake

    • Diet analysis

  • Customize meal plans


Foods in the exchange system
Foods in the Exchange System

  • Divided by chemical composition re:

    • Macronutrients

  • Specified portions of foods in each group are exchangeable with the other foods in that group


Food groups
Food Groups

  • Foods classified into 6 groups:

    • Starch

    • Fruit

    • Milk

    • Vegetables

    • Meat/meat substitutes

    • Fat


Starch group
Starch Group

  • 15 g carbohydrate

  • 3 g protein

  • 0-1 g fat

  • 80 Calories

    • Examples:

      • ½ Cup oatmeal

      • 1 Avg. slice bread

      • ½ English muffin

      • ½ Hot dog/hamburger bun

      • ½ Cup corn/peas


Fruit group
Fruit Group

  • 15 g carbohydrate

  • 0 g protein

  • 0 g fat

  • 60 Calories

    • Examples:

      • 1 small banana

      • 1 ¼ Cups strawberries

      • ½ Cup orange juice

      • ¾ Cup fresh pineapple


Milk group
Milk Group

  • 12 g carbohydrate

  • 8 g protein

  • 0 g fat (for non-fat milk)

  • 90 Calories

    • Examples:

      • 1 Cup non-fat milk

      • 1 Cup soy milk

      • 2/3 Cup fat-free, artificially sweetened yogurt


Vegetable group
Vegetable Group

  • 5 g carbohydrate

  • 2 g protein

  • 0 g fat

  • 25 Calories

    • Examples:

      • ½ Cup cooked spinach

      • 1 Cup baby carrots

      • 1 Cup diced tomatoes

      • 1 Cup cucumbers


Meat meat substitutes
Meat/Meat Substitutes

  • Very lean: 35 Cal, 7g PRO, 1g FAT

  • Lean: 55 Cal, 7g PRO, 3g FAT

  • Med fat: 75 Cal, 7g PRO, 5g FAT

  • High fat: 100 Cal, 7g PRO, 8g FAT

    • Examples:

      • ¼ Cup egg substitutes; white meat poultry, no skin

      • 1 oz lean cut beef (round, sirloin, loin, flank)

      • 1 egg; 1 oz ground beef, poultry w/skin, fried fish

      • 1 oz of most cheeses, sausages; peanut butter


Fat group
Fat Group

  • 0 g carbohydrate

  • 0 g protein

  • 5 g fat

  • 45 Calories

    • Examples:

      • 1 tsp oil

      • ½ Tbsp peanut butter

      • 1 Tbsp reduced-fat mayo

      • 1 Tbsp cream cheese


Diet prescription
Diet Prescription

  • #1:

    • Calculate energy needs

    • Male, 165#, runner

    • 3000 Cal/day

  • #2:

    • Convert pounds into kg

      • Divide 165# by 2.2 kg = 75 kg

      • Multiply 165# by 0.4536 kg = 75 kg


Diet prescription1
Diet Prescription

  • #3:

    • Calculate g CHO, PRO, FAT

    • ACSM & ADA

      • CHO:

        • 6-10 g CHO/kg BW

      • PRO:

        • Endurance: 1.2-1.4 g PRO/kg BW

        • Power: 1.6-1.7 g PRO/kg BW


Diet prescription2
Diet Prescription

  • #3 cont’d: Calculate g CHO, PRO, FAT

    • Example:

      • 75 kg x 6 g/kg BW = 450 g CHO = 1800 Cal

      • 75 kg x 1.4 g/kg BW = 105 g PRO = 420 Cal

      • 1800 + 420 = 2220 Cal

      • 3000 – 2220 = 780 Cal left for FAT

      • 780 Cal/9 Cal/g FAT = 87 g FAT


Diet prescription3
Diet Prescription

  • #4: Figure # of exchanges for CHO-containing food groups

    • Follow this order:***

      • Milk

      • Fruit

      • Vegetable

        ***Always begin with CHO-containing food groups


Diet prescription4
Diet Prescription

  • #5: Add all of the carbohydrates you have used so far for milk, fruit, & veggie exchanges.

    • Subtract from total g CHO.

    • Divide by 15.

      • This is how many starch exchanges you will have.


Diet prescription5
Diet Prescription

  • #6: Add grams of protein used thus far for milk, veggie, and starch exchanges.

    • Subtract from total grams of protein.

    • Divide by 7.

      • This is how many meat exchanges you are allotted.


Diet prescription6
Diet Prescription

  • #7: Add grams of fat used so far from starch and meat exchanges.

    • Subtract from total fat grams.

    • Divide by 5.

      • This is how many fat exchanges you will have.

  • #8: Add Cal from each food group to double check your work.

    • Be sure you are near your total Cal/day.


Calculating exchanges 24 hour recall
Calculating Exchanges:24-Hour Recall

  • 2 Cups cereal w/ 1 cup 2% milk

    • 2 starches and 1 milk + 1 fat

  • Turkey & cheese sandwich and chips

    • 2 slices bread = 2 starch

    • 1 T mayo = 1 fat

    • 3 oz turkey = 3 very lean meats

    • 1 oz potato chips = 1 starch + 2 fats

  • Pork loin, squash, dinner roll w/margarine

    • 5 oz pork loin = 5 lean meats + 2.5 fats

    • ½ cup squash = 1 starch

    • 1roll w/1 Tbsp lite margarine= 2 starch + 1 fat


Calculating exchanges labels
Calculating Exchanges:Labels

  • Begin with starch exchanges

    • Look at total grams CHO

      • 1. Divide by 15

      • 2. Multiply that number by 3 g protein.

      • 3. Subtract that number from total grams PRO on the label.

      • 4. Divide by 7 to get number of meat exchanges.

      • 5. Take the number you calculated from #1 and multiply it by 1 g fat (1 g fat per each starch exchange).

      • 6. Divide that number by 5 g fat to determine fat exchanges.


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