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The Exchange System. By Aimee Clem, R.D. Graduate Student, Nutrition Central Washington University. The Exchange System: What is it?. Food classification method Created for diabetics by ADA & ADA Track Calories, CHO’s, PRO, FAT Healthy way of eating. Athlete Nutrition.

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the exchange system

The Exchange System

By Aimee Clem, R.D.

Graduate Student, Nutrition

Central Washington University

the exchange system what is it
The Exchange System: What is it?
  • Food classification method
  • Created for diabetics by ADA & ADA
    • Track Calories, CHO’s, PRO, FAT
  • Healthy way of eating
athlete nutrition
Athlete Nutrition
  • Awareness of macronutrient composition
  • Allows dietitian/nutritionist to estimate Calorie and macronutrient intake
    • Diet analysis
  • Customize meal plans
foods in the exchange system
Foods in the Exchange System
  • Divided by chemical composition re:
    • Macronutrients
  • Specified portions of foods in each group are exchangeable with the other foods in that group
food groups
Food Groups
  • Foods classified into 6 groups:
    • Starch
    • Fruit
    • Milk
    • Vegetables
    • Meat/meat substitutes
    • Fat
starch group
Starch Group
  • 15 g carbohydrate
  • 3 g protein
  • 0-1 g fat
  • 80 Calories
    • Examples:
      • ½ Cup oatmeal
      • 1 Avg. slice bread
      • ½ English muffin
      • ½ Hot dog/hamburger bun
      • ½ Cup corn/peas
fruit group
Fruit Group
  • 15 g carbohydrate
  • 0 g protein
  • 0 g fat
  • 60 Calories
    • Examples:
      • 1 small banana
      • 1 ¼ Cups strawberries
      • ½ Cup orange juice
      • ¾ Cup fresh pineapple
milk group
Milk Group
  • 12 g carbohydrate
  • 8 g protein
  • 0 g fat (for non-fat milk)
  • 90 Calories
    • Examples:
      • 1 Cup non-fat milk
      • 1 Cup soy milk
      • 2/3 Cup fat-free, artificially sweetened yogurt
vegetable group
Vegetable Group
  • 5 g carbohydrate
  • 2 g protein
  • 0 g fat
  • 25 Calories
    • Examples:
      • ½ Cup cooked spinach
      • 1 Cup baby carrots
      • 1 Cup diced tomatoes
      • 1 Cup cucumbers
meat meat substitutes
Meat/Meat Substitutes
  • Very lean: 35 Cal, 7g PRO, 1g FAT
  • Lean: 55 Cal, 7g PRO, 3g FAT
  • Med fat: 75 Cal, 7g PRO, 5g FAT
  • High fat: 100 Cal, 7g PRO, 8g FAT
    • Examples:
      • ¼ Cup egg substitutes; white meat poultry, no skin
      • 1 oz lean cut beef (round, sirloin, loin, flank)
      • 1 egg; 1 oz ground beef, poultry w/skin, fried fish
      • 1 oz of most cheeses, sausages; peanut butter
fat group
Fat Group
  • 0 g carbohydrate
  • 0 g protein
  • 5 g fat
  • 45 Calories
    • Examples:
      • 1 tsp oil
      • ½ Tbsp peanut butter
      • 1 Tbsp reduced-fat mayo
      • 1 Tbsp cream cheese
diet prescription
Diet Prescription
  • #1:
    • Calculate energy needs
    • Male, 165#, runner
    • 3000 Cal/day
  • #2:
    • Convert pounds into kg
      • Divide 165# by 2.2 kg = 75 kg
      • Multiply 165# by 0.4536 kg = 75 kg
diet prescription1
Diet Prescription
  • #3:
    • Calculate g CHO, PRO, FAT
    • ACSM & ADA
      • CHO:
        • 6-10 g CHO/kg BW
      • PRO:
        • Endurance: 1.2-1.4 g PRO/kg BW
        • Power: 1.6-1.7 g PRO/kg BW
diet prescription2
Diet Prescription
  • #3 cont’d: Calculate g CHO, PRO, FAT
    • Example:
      • 75 kg x 6 g/kg BW = 450 g CHO = 1800 Cal
      • 75 kg x 1.4 g/kg BW = 105 g PRO = 420 Cal
      • 1800 + 420 = 2220 Cal
      • 3000 – 2220 = 780 Cal left for FAT
      • 780 Cal/9 Cal/g FAT = 87 g FAT
diet prescription3
Diet Prescription
  • #4: Figure # of exchanges for CHO-containing food groups
    • Follow this order:***
      • Milk
      • Fruit
      • Vegetable

***Always begin with CHO-containing food groups

diet prescription4
Diet Prescription
  • #5: Add all of the carbohydrates you have used so far for milk, fruit, & veggie exchanges.
    • Subtract from total g CHO.
    • Divide by 15.
      • This is how many starch exchanges you will have.
diet prescription5
Diet Prescription
  • #6: Add grams of protein used thus far for milk, veggie, and starch exchanges.
    • Subtract from total grams of protein.
    • Divide by 7.
      • This is how many meat exchanges you are allotted.
diet prescription6
Diet Prescription
  • #7: Add grams of fat used so far from starch and meat exchanges.
    • Subtract from total fat grams.
    • Divide by 5.
      • This is how many fat exchanges you will have.
  • #8: Add Cal from each food group to double check your work.
    • Be sure you are near your total Cal/day.
calculating exchanges 24 hour recall
Calculating Exchanges:24-Hour Recall
  • 2 Cups cereal w/ 1 cup 2% milk
    • 2 starches and 1 milk + 1 fat
  • Turkey & cheese sandwich and chips
    • 2 slices bread = 2 starch
    • 1 T mayo = 1 fat
    • 3 oz turkey = 3 very lean meats
    • 1 oz potato chips = 1 starch + 2 fats
  • Pork loin, squash, dinner roll w/margarine
    • 5 oz pork loin = 5 lean meats + 2.5 fats
    • ½ cup squash = 1 starch
    • 1roll w/1 Tbsp lite margarine= 2 starch + 1 fat
calculating exchanges labels
Calculating Exchanges:Labels
  • Begin with starch exchanges
    • Look at total grams CHO
      • 1. Divide by 15
      • 2. Multiply that number by 3 g protein.
      • 3. Subtract that number from total grams PRO on the label.
      • 4. Divide by 7 to get number of meat exchanges.
      • 5. Take the number you calculated from #1 and multiply it by 1 g fat (1 g fat per each starch exchange).
      • 6. Divide that number by 5 g fat to determine fat exchanges.
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